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Radiation Safety - in the Western Australian Mining Industry
----\n''Absolute risk'': the proportion of a population expected to get a disease over a specified time period. See also risk, relative risk. \n\n''Absorbed dose'': the amount of energy deposited by ionizing radiation in a unit mass of tissue. It is expressed in units of joule per kilogram (J/kg), and called “gray” (Gy). For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.\n\n''Activity (radioactivity)'': the rate of decay of radioactive material expressed as the number of atoms breaking down per second measured in units called becquerels or curies.\n\n''Acute exposure'': an exposure to radiation that occurred in a matter of minutes rather than in longer, continuing exposure over a period of time. See also chronic exposure, exposure, fractionated exposure.\n\n''Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS)'': a serious illness caused by receiving a dose greater than 75 rads of penetrating radiation to the body in a short time (usually minutes). The earliest symptoms are nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Hair loss, bleeding, swelling of the mouth and throat, and general loss of energy may follow. If the exposure has been approximately 1,000 rads or more, death may occur within 2 – 4 weeks. For more information, see CDC’s fact sheet “Acute Radiation Syndrome” at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/ars.asp.\n\n''ALARA'': keeping radiation doses ''A''s ''L''ow ''A''s ''R''easonably ''A''chievable is an important part of radiation protection.\n\n''Alpha particle'': the nucleus of a helium atom, made up of two neutrons and two protons with a charge of +2. Certain radioactive nuclei emit alpha particles. Alpha particles generally carry more energy than gamma or beta particles, and deposit that energy very quickly while passing through tissue. Alpha particles can be stopped by a thin layer of light material, such as a sheet of paper, and cannot penetrate the outer, dead layer of skin. Therefore, they do not damage living tissue when outside the body. When alpha-emitting atoms are inhaled or swallowed, however, they are especially damaging because they transfer relatively large amounts of ionizing energy to living cells. See also beta particle, gamma ray, neutron, x-ray.\n\n''AMAD'': the Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter of the inhaled dust. The AMAD influences respiratory system deposition patterns and is a major parameter of interest in the dose assessment equation.\n\n''Ambient air'': the air that surrounds us.\n\n''Americium (Am)'': a silvery metal; it is a man-made element whose isotopes Am-237 through Am-246 are all radioactive. Am-241 is formed spontaneously by the beta decay of plutonium-241. Trace quantities of americium are widely used in smoke detectors, and as neutron sources in neutron moisture gauges.\n\n''ANSTO'': The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) is Australia 's national nuclear research and development organisation and the centre of Australian nuclear expertise. With a salaried staff of approximately 860, ANSTO is responsible for delivering specialised advice, scientific services and products to government, industry, academia and other research organisations.\n\n''ARPANSA'': The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), as part of the Health and Ageing Portfolio, is a Federal Government agency charged with responsibility for protecting the health and safety of people, and the environment, from the harmful effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.\n\n''Atom'': the smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical reaction.\n\n''Atomic number'': the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.\n\n''Atomic mass unit (amu)'': 1 amu is equal to one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 atom.\n\n''Atomic mass number'': the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.\n\n''Atomic weight'': the mass of an atom, expressed in atomic mass units. For example, the atomic number of helium-4 is 2, the atomic mass is 4, and the atomic weight is 4.00026.\n----\n[[B]]\n
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[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/SAI.jpg]]\nAustralian Standards \nhttp://www.saiglobal.com/shop/script/Provider.asp?Db=AS \n(__Links to sample pages only__ - documents must be purchased from Australian Standards)\n\nAS 3640-2004 Workplace Atmospheres - Method for sampling and gravimetric determination of inhalable dust. Sample pages only - this document can be purchased from Australian Standards. \nhttp://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/as/as3000/3600/3640.pdf \n\nAS/NZS 4801:2001\nOccupational Health and Safety Management Systems – Specifications with guidance for use. http://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/as/as4000/4800/4801.pdf\n\nAS/NZS 4804:2001\nOccupational Health and Safety Management Systems – General guidelines on principles, systems and supporting techniques. Sample pages only - this document can be purchased from Australian Standards.\nhttp://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/as/as4000/4800/4804.pdf\n\nAS 4360: 2004\nRisk Management.\nhttp://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/as/as4000/4300/4360-2004.PDF\n\nHB 158-2006\nDelivering assurance based on AS/NZS 4360:2004 Risk Management. http://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/as/misc/handbook/HB158-2006.pdf\n\nHB 205-2004\nOHS Risk Management Handbook.\nhttp://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/as/misc/handbook/HB205-2004.PDF\n\nHB 436:2004 Risk Management Guidelines\nhttp://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/as/misc/handbook/HB436-2004(+A1).pdf\n\nAS/NZS ISO 14001:2004\nEnvironmental Management Systems – Requirements with guidance for use\nhttp://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/as/as10000/14000/14001-2004.pdf\n\nAS/NZS ISO 14031:2000\nEnvironmental Management – Environmental performance evaluation – Guidelines\nhttp://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/as/as10000/14000/14031.pdf\n\nAS/NZS 3931: 1998\nRisk analysis of technological systems – Application guide\nhttp://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/As/as3000/3900/3931.PDF\n
----\n''Background radiation'': ionizing radiation from natural sources, such as terrestrial radiation due to radionuclides in the soil or cosmic radiation originating in outer space.\n\n''Becquerel (Bq)'': the amount of a radioactive material that will undergo one decay (disintegration) per second. For more information, see [[Primer on Radiation Measurement]].\n\n''Beta particles'': electrons ejected from the nucleus of a decaying atom. Although they can be stopped by a thin sheet of aluminum, beta particles can penetrate the dead skin layer, potentially causing burns. They can pose a serious direct or external radiation threat and can be lethal depending on the amount received. They also pose a serious internal radiation threat if beta-emitting atoms are ingested or inhaled. See also alpha particle, gamma ray, neutron, x-ray.\n\n''Bioassay'': an assessment of radioactive materials that may be present inside a person’s body through analysis of the person’s blood, urine, feces, or sweat.\n\n''Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) Reports'': reports of the National Research Council's committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. For more information, see http://www.nap.edu/books/0309039959/html/.\n\n''Biological half-life'': the time required for one half of the amount of a substance, such as a radionuclide, to be expelled from the body by natural metabolic processes, not counting radioactive decay, once it has been taken in through inhalation, ingestion, or absorption. See also radioactive half-life, effective half-life.\n----\n[[C]]\n
----\n\n''Caesium 137 (Cs-137)'': is a radioactive isotope which is formed mainly by nuclear fission. It has a half-life of 30.23 years, and decays by pure beta decay to a metastable nuclear isomer of barium-137 (Ba-137m). Barium-137m has a half-life of 2.55 minutes and is responsible for all of the gamma ray emission. Used in radiation gauges.\n\n''Carcinogen'': a cancer-causing substance.\n\n''Chain reaction'': a process that initiates its own repetition. In a fission chain reaction, a fissile nucleus absorbs a neutron and fissions (splits) spontaneously, releasing additional neutrons. These, in turn, can be absorbed by other fissile nuclei, releasing still more neutrons. A fission chain reaction is self-sustaining when the number of neutrons released in a given time equals or exceeds the number of neutrons lost by absorption in non-fissile material or by escape from the system.\n\n''Chronic exposure'': exposure to a substance over a long period of time, possibly resulting in adverse health effects. See also acute exposure, fractionated exposure.\n\n''Cobalt 60 (Co-60)'': gray, hard, magnetic, and somewhat malleable metal. Cobalt is relatively rare and generally obtained as a by-product of other metals, such as copper. Its most common radioisotope, cobalt-60 (Co-60), is used in radiation gauges, industrial radiography and medical applications. Cobalt-60 with a half life of 5.27 years emits beta particles and gamma rays during radioactive decay.\n\n''Collective dose'': the estimated dose for an area or region multiplied by the estimated population in that area or region. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.\n\n''Committed dose'': a dose that accounts for continuing exposures expected to be received over a long period of time (such as 30, 50, or 70 years) from radioactive materials that were deposited inside the body. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.\n\n''Concentration'': the ratio of the amount of a specific substance in a given volume or mass of solution to the mass or volume of solvent.\n\n''Contamination (radioactive)'': the deposition of unwanted radioactive material on the surfaces of structures, areas, objects, or people where it may be external or internal. See also decontamination.\n\n''Cosmic radiation'': radiation produced in outer space when heavy particles from other galaxies (nuclei of all known natural elements) bombard the earth. See also background radiation, terrestrial radiation.\n\n''Criticality'': a fission process where the neutron production rate equals the neutron loss rate to absorption or leakage. A nuclear reactor is "critical" when it is operating.\n\n''Critical mass'': the minimum amount of fissile material that can achieve a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.\n\n''Cumulative dose'': the total dose resulting from repeated or continuous exposures of the same portion of the body, or of the whole body, to ionizing radiation. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement ” at the end of this document.\n\n''Curie (Ci)'': the old measure of radioactivity based on the observed decay rate of 1 gram of radium. One curie of radioactive material will have 37 billion disintegrations in 1 second. The Curie has been replaced by the Becquerel. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.\n\n''Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome (CRS)'': the complex syndrome resulting from radiation exposure of more than 200 rads to the skin. The immediate effects can be reddening and swelling of the exposed area (like a severe burn), blisters, ulcers on the skin, hair loss, and severe pain. Very large doses can result in permanent hair loss, scarring, altered skin color, deterioration of the affected body part, and death of the affected tissue (requiring surgery). For more information, see CDC’s fact sheet “Acute Radiation Syndrome,” at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/ars.asp.\n----\n[[D]]\n
\n\n|>| RADIATION MANAGEMENT PLAN CHECK LIST |\n|Company Name: |>|\n|Date: |>|\n|Submitted by: |>|\n|>| >< |\n|>|A typical uranium exploration radiation management plan should cover the following areas|\n|Item |Covered |\n|Company and Site details | |\n|Employee workgroup details | |\n|Type of drilling | |\n|Work / Hygiene practices | |\n|Radiation monitoring equipment | |\n|Drilling / Personnel radiation monitoring | |\n|Storage of radioactive material | |\n|Disposal of radioactive material | |\n|Decontamination of equipment | |\n|Recording of monitoring data | |\n|Reporting to Regulators | |\n|Environmental considerations and site radiological cleanup | |\n|Training | |\n|Transport of radioactive material | |\n|Pre & Post drill site background radiation monitoring including sampling of ground water (where practical). | |\n\nComments\n----\n\n\n----
[[ARPANSA Codes|http://www.arpansa.gov.au/Publications/codes/index.cfm]]\n\n[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/publications/rps9.jpg]]\n\nCode of Practice and Safety Guide - Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Management in Mining and Mineral Processing (2005) Radiation Protection Series Publication No. 9 August 2005\nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/Publications/codes/rps9.cfm\n \n[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/publications/rps2.jpg]]\n\nCode of Practice for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material - radiation safety series No. 2 ARPANSA\nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/Publications/codes/rps2.cfm\n\n[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/Publications/rhs13.jpg]]\n\nCode of Practice for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes by the User (1985)\nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rhs/rhs13.pdf|\n\n[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/Publications/rps1.jpg]]\n\nRecommendations for Limiting Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (Printed 1995 - Republished 2002) and National Standard for Limiting Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (Printed 1995 - Republished 2002)\nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/Publications/codes/rps1.cfm\n\n[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/Publications/rhs38.jpg]]\n\nRecommended limits on radioactive contamination on surfaces in laboratories (1995) - Radiation Health Series No. 38. Approved at the 119th session of the National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra, June 1995 http://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rhs/rhs38.pdf\n\n[[Other documents that may be useful]] \n\n
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!LOCAL\nCalytrix Consulting Pty Ltd http://www.calytrix.biz/\n\nIndustrial Foundation for Accident Prevention (IFAP) http://www.ifap.asn.au/ \n\nMining Radiation Safety Australia (MRSA) http://www.radiationsafetytraining.com.au/\n\nRadiation Safety Services http://www.radiationsafety.com.au/\n\nUniversity of WA - Radiation Safety http://www.safety.uwa.edu.au/radiation \n\nWestern Radiation Services http://www.westernradiation.com.au/\n\n!NATIONAL\nMark Sonter Phone / fax (07) 3297 7653\nRadiation Advice & Solutions Pty Ltd, abn 31 891 761 435\nAsteroid Enterprises Pty Ltd, abn 53 008 115 302\n116 Pennine Drive, South Maclean, Queensland 4280\n\nDr Joseph G. Young and colleagues\nAustralian Radiation Services Pty Ltd\nPO Box 3103, Nunawading, Victoria, 3131.\n22 King Street, Blackburn, Victoria 3130.\nTelephone(03)9877 4898\nFax (03)9877 8272\nWeb Site http://www.australian-radiation-services.com.au\n\nDr Jiri Kvasnicka Phone / fax (08) 8431 5002\nRadiation Detection Systems\n10 Allendale Grove, Stoneyfell, South Australia 5066
----\n''Decay chain (decay series)'': the series of decays that certain radioisotopes go through before reaching a stable form. For example, the decay chain that begins with uranium-238 (U-238) ends in lead-206 (Pb-206), after forming isotopes, such as uranium-234 (U-234), thorium-230 (Th-230), radium-226 (Ra-226), and radon-222 (Rn-222).\n\n''Decay constant'': the fraction of a number of atoms of a radioactive nuclide that disintegrates in a unit of time. The decay constant is inversely proportional to the radioactive half-life.\n\n''Decay products (or daughter products)'': the isotopes or elements formed and the particles and high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted by the nuclei of radionuclides during radioactive decay. Also known as "decay chain products" or "progeny" (the isotopes and elements). A decay product may be either radioactive or stable. \n\n''Decay, radioactive'': disintegration of the nucleus of an unstable atom by the release of radiation.\n\n''Decontamination'': the reduction or removal of radioactive contamination from a structure, object, or person.\n\n''Depleted uranium'': uranium containing less than 0.7% uranium-235, the amount found in natural uranium. See also enriched uranium.\n\n''Deposition density'': the activity of a radionuclide per unit area of ground. Reported as becquerels per square meter or curies per square meter.\n\n''Deterministic effects'': effects that can be related directly to the radiation dose received. The severity increases as the dose increases. A deterministic effect typically has a threshold below which the effect will not occur. See also stochastic effect, non-stochastic effect.\n\n''Deuterium'': a non-radioactive isotope of the hydrogen atom that contains a neutron in its nucleus in addition to the one proton normally seen in hydrogen. A deuterium atom is twice as heavy as normal hydrogen. See also tritium.\n\n''Dose (radiation)'': radiation absorbed by person’s body. Several different terms describe radiation dose. For more information, see [[Primer on Radiation Measurement]].\n\n''Dose coefficient'': the factor used to convert radionuclide intake to dose. Usually expressed as dose per unit intake (e.g., sieverts per becquerel).\n\n''Dose equivalent'': a quantity used in radiation protection to place all radiation on a common scale for calculating tissue damage. Dose equivalent is the absorbed dose in grays times the quality factor. The quality factor accounts for differences in radiation effects caused by different types of ionizing radiation. Some radiation, including alpha particles, causes a greater amount of damage per unit of absorbed dose than other radiation. The sievert (Sv) is the unit used to measure dose equivalent. For more information, see [[Primer on Radiation Measurement]].\n\n''Dose rate'': the radiation dose delivered per unit of time.\n\n''Dose reconstruction'': a scientific study that estimates doses to people from releases of radioactivity or other pollutants. The dose is reconstructed by determining the amount of material released, the way people came in contact with it, and the amount they absorbed.\n\n''Dosimeter'': a small portable instrument (such as a film badge, thermoluminescent dosimeter [TLD], or pocket dosimeter) for measuring and recording the total accumulated dose of ionizing radiation a person receives.\n\n''Dosimetry'': assessment (by measurement or calculation) of radiation dose.\n----\n[[E]]\n
|>|>|>| Uranium-238 Decay Series | |>|>|>| Thorium-232 Decay Series |\n| | Isotope | Radiation | half-life | | | Isotope | Radiation | half-life |\n| 1 | U-238 | α | 4.5 x 10^^9^^ yrs | | 1 | Th-232 | α | 14 x 10^^9^^ yrs |\n| 2 | Th-234 | β γ | 24 days | | 2 | Ra-228 | β | 5.8 yrs |\n| 3 | Pa-234 | β | 1.2 mins | | 3 | Ac-228 | β γ | 6.1 hrs |\n| 4 | U-234 | α | 240,000 yrs | | 4 | Th-228 | α | 1.9 yrs |\n| 5 | Th-230 | α | 77,000 yrs | | 5 | Ra-224 | α | 3.6 days |\n| 6 | Ra-226 | α γ | 1,600 yrs | | 6 | Rn-220 | α | 55 sec |\n| 7 | Rn-222 | α | 3.8 days | | 7 | Po-216 | α | 0.15 sec |\n| 8 | Po-218 | α | 3.1 mins | | 8 | Pb-212 | β γ | 11 hrs | | | Isotope | Radiation | half-life |\n| 9 | Pb-214 | β γ | 27 mins | | 9 | Bi-212 | β γ | 61 mins (64%) | or | 9 | Isotope | α γ | 61 mins (36%) |\n| 10 | Bi-214 | β γ |20 mins | | 10 | Po-212 | α | 300 nsec | | 10 | Tl-208 | β γ | 3.1 mins |\n| 11 | Po-214 | α | 160 µsec | | 11 | Pb-208 | | stable | | 11 | Pb-208 | | stable |\n| 12 | Pb-210 | β γ | 22 yrs |\n| 13 | Bi-210 | β | 6 days |\n| 15 | Po-210 | α | 140 days |\n| 16 | Pb-206 | | stable |\nmore..\nhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decay_chain\n\nhttp://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/natural-decay-series.pdf\n\nhttp://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/natural-decay-series.pdf
''DOSE REPORTING FOR __OCCUPATIONAL__ EXPOSURE TO IONISING RADIATION''\n\n''Investigate and place report on personal file of the radiation worker if:-''\n\n3/10 x dose equivalent limit < reported or estimated dose &le; 1 x dose equivalent limit\n\n''Examples''\n| | REQUIRED BY REGULATION 15(1) |\n| | REPORTED OR ESTIMATED DOSE IS BETWEEN |\n| | Effective Dose in mSv |\n| ''Monitoring Period'' | ''Whole body'' |\n| 1 month | 0.5 – 1.65 |\n| 2 months | 1 – 3.3 |\n| 3 months | 1.5 – 5 |\n\n''Investigate and report in writing to Radiological Council __within 7 days__ if:-''\n\n1 x dose equivalent limit < reported or estimated dose &le; 5 x dose equivalent limit\n\n''Examples''\n| | REQUIRED BY REGULATION 15(2) |\n| | REPORTED OR ESTIMATED DOSE IS BETWEEN |\n| | Effective Dose in mSv |\n| ''Monitoring Period'' | ''Whole body'' |\n| 1 month | 1.65 – 8.3 |\n| 2 months | 3.3 – 16.7 |\n| 3 months | 5 – 25 |\n\n''Report to Radiological Council immediately if:-''\n\nReported or estimated dose > 5 x dose equivalent\n\n''Examples''\n\n| | REQUIRED BY REGULATION 15(3) |\n| | REPORTED OR ESTIMATED DOSE IS GREATER |\n| | Effective Dose in mSv |\n| Monitoring Period | Whole body |\n| 1 month | 8.3 |\n| 2 months | 16.7 |\n| 3 months | 25 |\n\n----\n\n''DOSE REPORTING FOR EXPOSURE OF A MEMBER OF THE PUBLIC TO IONISING RADIATION:''\n\n''Investigate and __immediately__ forward a Report to Radiological Council if:-''\ndose equivalent limit < reported or estimated dose\n\n''Examples''\nREPORT IF THE FOLLOWING LIMITS SPECIFIED IN SCHEDULE I OF THE REGULATIONS ARE EXCEEDED\n| | REPORTED OR ESTIMATED EFFECTIVE DOSE IS GREATER (μSv) |\n| ''Period Whole'' | ''body'' |\n| 12 months | 1000^^a^^ |\n| 5 years | 5000 |\n^^a^^ - a higher value may be permitted in a single year provided the average over 5 years does not exceed 1 mSv per year.\n\n\nREPORT IF THE FOLLOWING ICRP 60 RECOMMENDATIONS ARE EXCEEDED\n| |>| REPORTED OR ESTIMATED EQUIVALENTR DOSE IS GREATER (mSv) |\n| Period | Lens of Eye | Skin |\n| 1 year | 15 | 50 |
!Radiation Safety Training For Uranium Exploration\n#Basic Physics\n**Elements\n**Nuclides and Isotopes\n**Radioactivity\n**Half life\n*Decay\n**alpha, beta, gamma\n**Interaction of radiation with matter\n# Basic Radiation Protection\n**Ionising Radiation\n**ALARA\n* Time Distance Shielding\nUnits of measurement of radiation\nDose Units\nDose Limits\nDose Measurement\nIonising radiation in the natural environment\nControl of internal exposures\nPotential hazards of ionizing radiation – level of risk\n#Radiation Detection and Measurement\nInstruments used in exploration\nContamination monitors\n#Personal Monitoring\nBadges\nAirborne contamination\nAir samplers\nParticulate sampling\nPersonal air samplers\nContamination surveys\nRadiation surveys\n#Personal Radiation Safety\n· Hygiene\n· RPE / Hot environments\n· Decontamination\n6. Radioactive Waste Management\n· Dilution and dispersion\n· Properties of uranium ore\n7. Transport Regulations\n· Transport of uranium ore\n8. WA Regulations and Codes of Practice\n· Licences / Registration\n9. Radiation Management Plans\n· Duties of Employer\n· Duties of the Radiation Safety Officer\n· Duties of employees
----\n''Effective dose'': a dosimetric quantity useful for comparing the overall health affects of irradiation of the whole body. It takes into account the absorbed doses received by various organs and tissues and weighs them according to present knowledge of the sensitivity of each organ to radiation. It also accounts for the type of radiation and the potential for each type to inflict biologic damage. The effective dose is used, for example, to compare the overall health detriments of different radionuclides in a given mix. The unit of effective dose is the sievert (Sv); 1 Sv = 1 J/kg. For more information, see [[Primer on Radiation Measurement]].\n\n''Effective half-life'': the time required for the amount of a radionuclide deposited in a living organism to be diminished by 50% as a result of the combined action of radioactive decay and biologic elimination. See also biological half-life, decay constant, radioactive half-life.\n\n''Electron'': an elementary particle with a negative electrical charge and a mass 1/1837 that of the proton. Electrons surround the nucleus of an atom because of the attraction between their negative charge and the positive charge of the nucleus. A stable atom will have as many electrons as it has protons. The number of electrons that orbit an atom determine its chemical properties. See also neutron.\n\n''Electron volt (eV)'': a unit of energy equivalent to the amount of energy gained by an electron when it passes from a point of low potential to a point one volt higher in potential.\n\n''Element'': 1) all isotopes of an atom that contain the same number of protons. For example, the element uranium has 92 protons, and the different isotopes of this element may contain 134 to 148 neutrons. 2) In a reactor, a fuel element is a metal rod containing the fissile material.\n\n''Enriched uranium'': uranium in which the proportion of the isotope uranium-235 has been increased by removing uranium-238 mechanically. See also depleted uranium.\n\n''Epidemiology'': the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations; and the application of this study to the control of health problems.\n\n''Exposure (radiation)'': a measure of ionization in air caused by x-rays or gamma rays only. The unit of exposure most often used is the roentgen. See also contamination.\n\n''Exposure pathway'': a route by which a radionuclide or other toxic material can enter the body. The main exposure routes are inhalation, ingestion, absorption through the skin, and entry through a cut or wound in the skin.\n\n''Exposure rate'': a measure of the ionization produced in air by x-rays or gamma rays per unit of time (frequently expressed in roentgens per hour).\n\n''External exposure'': exposure to radiation outside of the body.\n----\n[[F]]
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Western Australian Dose Limits And Maximum Permissible Exposure Levels \nhttp://www.radiologicalcouncil.wa.gov.au/PDF/DoseLimits.pdf \n\nRADIATION SAFETY ACT Reporting Abnormal or Unplanned Exposures Regulation 19A\nhttp://www.radiologicalcouncil.wa.gov.au/PDF/ReportingExposures.pdf\n\n[[Dose Reporting Limits]] \n\nRecommendations for limiting exposure to ionizing radiation (1995) (Guidance note [NOHSC:3022(1995)]) and National standard for limiting occupational exposure to ionizing radiation [NOHSC:1013(1995)] Radiation Protection Series Publication No. 1\nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rps/rps1.pdf\n\nUNSCEAR 2000 REPORT Vol. II SOURCES AND EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly \nhttp://www.unscear.org/docs/reports/gareport.pdf\n\n\n
----\n''Fissile material'': any material in which neutrons can cause a fission reaction. The three primary fissile materials are uranium-233, uranium-235, and plutonium-239.\n\n''Fission (fissioning)'': the splitting of a nucleus into at least two other nuclei that releases a large amount of energy. Two or three neutrons are usually released during this transformation. See also fusion.\n\n''Fractionated exposure'': exposure to radiation that occurs in several small acute exposures, rather than continuously as in a chronic exposure.\n\n''Fusion'': a reaction in which at least one heavier, more stable nucleus is produced from two lighter, less stable nuclei. Reactions of this type are responsible for the release of energy in stars or in thermonuclear weapons.\n----\n[[G]]
----\n''Gamma rays'': high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted by certain radionuclides when their nuclei transition from a higher to a lower energy state. These rays have high energy and a short wave length. All gamma rays emitted from a given isotope have the same energy, a characteristic that enables scientists to identify which gamma emitters are present in a sample. Gamma rays penetrate tissue farther than do beta or alpha particles, but leave a lower concentration of ions in their path to potentially cause cell damage. Gamma rays are very similar to x-rays. See also neutron.\n\n''Geiger counter'': a radiation detection and measuring instrument consisting of a gas-filled tube containing electrodes, between which an electrical voltage but no current flows. When ionizing radiation passes through the tube, a short, intense pulse of current passes from the negative electrode to the positive electrode and is measured or counted. The number of pulses per second measures the intensity of the radiation field. Geiger counters are the most commonly used portable radiation detection instruments.\n\n''Genetic effects'': hereditary effects (mutations) that can be passed on through reproduction because of changes in sperm or ova. See also teratogenic effects, somatic effects.\n\n''Gray (Gy)'': a unit of measurement for absorbed dose. It measures the amount of energy absorbed in a material. The unit Gy can be used for any type of radiation, but it does not describe the biological effects of the different radiations. For more information, see [[Primer on Radiation Measurement]].\n----\n[[H]]
[[Decay Series]]\n\n[[Exposure Limits]]\n\n[[Monitoring Badges]]\n\n[[NORM]] Naturally Ocurring Radioactive Material\n\n[[PeriodicTable]] of Elements\n\nPrecautionary principles in Radiation Protection http://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rhsac/prec.pdf\n\n[[Primer on Radiation Measurement]]\n\n[[Radiation]] - what is it?\n\nRadiation and Life http://www.uic.com.au/ral.htm\n\nRadiation and Risk http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/risk.htm\n\nRadiation Risk and Ethics http://www.riskworld.com/nreports/1999/jaworowski/NR99aa01.htm\n\n[[Radiation Safety Officer]]\n\n[[Radioactive Minerals]]\n\nRadioactivity in nature http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/natural.htm\n\nRisk Communication, Risk Statistics,and Risk Comparisons http://www.psandman.com/articles/cma-0.htm\n\n[[What is a Bequerel?]]\n\n
Quoting http://www.tiddlywiki.com/ - The easiest way to learn about TiddlyWiki is to use it! Try clicking on various links and see what happens - you cannot damage a TiddlyWiki or your browser. One tip is to use the <<closeAll>> button over on the top right to clear all the displayed tiddlers and start again. Dave Gifford has prepared a new beginners guide: "[[TiddlyWiki for the Rest of Us|http://www.giffmex.org/twfortherestofus.html]]". There's also MorrisGray's excellent [[TW Help - TiddlyWiki help file for beginners|http://tiddlyspot.com/twhelp/]]\n\nWhen you're ready to create your own TiddlyWiki on your computer, follow the instructions in DownloadSoftware and SaveChanges. There is also a free hosted service at http://tiddlyspot.com/ that makes it easier to share your TiddlyWiki with others (for more demanding applications there are several other ServerSide solutions available). There are also a couple of introductory screencasts from [[JimVentola|http://faculty.massasoit.mass.edu/jventola/videocasts/tidhelp2/tidhelp2.html]] and [[LeonKilat|http://max.limpag.com/2006/09/07/using-a-tiddlywiki-a-video-guide/]].\n\nThere is some great introductory and advanced TiddlyWiki guide material at [[tiddlywikiguides.org|http://tiddlywikiguides.org/]], run by SimonBaird and DanielBaird. Simon and Daniel also have a regularly updated [[FAQ|http://twfaq.tiddlyspot.com/]], and JimBarr has an older collection of tips at [[TiddlyWikiTips|http://tiddlywikitips.com/]]. DmitriPopov has created a useful [[TiddlyWiki quick reference card|http://nothickmanuals.info/doku.php/cheatsheets]].\n\nRunning XP ~ServicePack2 see http://www.tiddlywiki.com/#ServicePack2Problems
Alphabetical Listing of Terms:\n| [[A]] | [[B]] | [[C]] | [[D]] |[[E]] | [[F]] | [[G]] | [[H]] | [[I]] | [[J]] | [[K]] | [[L]] |[[M]] |\n| [[N]] | [[O]] | [[P]] | [[Q]] | [[R]] | [[S]] | [[T]] | [[U]] |[[V]] | [[W]] |[[X]] | [[Y]] | [[Z]] |\n\n \n[[Primer on Radiation Measurement]]\n\nReference \nCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, U.S.A http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/glossary.asp
__WESTERN AUSTRALIA__\n\n\n''New Draft Guidelines now available for comment''\n\nhttp://calytrix.biz/radlinks/tenorm/guidelines/index.htm\n\n\n[img[http://calytrix.biz/radlinks/tenorm/guidelines/guidelines.jpg]]\n\n----\n\n__NATIONAL GUIDELINES__\n\nAUSTRALIAN DRINKING WATER GUIDELINES 6 – 2004 \nhttp://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/_files/adwg_11_06.pdf\n\n----\n\n__INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES__\n\n[img[http://www.iaea.org/Publications/images/safety_standards4.jpg]]\n\nIAEA Safety Standards Series Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material Safety Guide No.~TS-G-1.1(~ST-2)\nhttp://www-ns.iaea.org/standards/documents/default.asp?sub=200\n\nIAEA Safety Standards Series Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material 1996 Edition (Revised) Requirements No. ~TS-R-1 (~ST-1, Revised)\nhttp://www-ns.iaea.org/standards/documents/default.asp?sub=200\n\nIAEA Safety Standards Series No.115 IAEA Safety Standards Series International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources\nhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/SS-115-Web/Start.pdf\n\nOccupational Radiation Protection SAFETY GUIDE No. ~RS-G-1.1 \nhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1081_web.pdf\n\nAssessment of Occupational Exposure Due to Intakes of Radionuclides SAFETY GUIDE No. ~RS-G-1.2 \nhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/P077_scr.pdf\n\nOccupational Radiation Protection in the Mining and Processing of Raw Materials SAFETY GUIDE No. ~RS-G-1.6 \nhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1183_web.pdf\n\nAssessing the Need for Radiation Protection Measures in Work Involving Minerals and Raw Materials. Safety Reports Series No. 49\nhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1257_web.pdf \n\n----\n\n__NON RADIATION GUIDELINES__\n\nExploration Safety HIF audit\nhttp://www.docep.wa.gov.au/resourcessafety/Sections/Mining_Safety/pdf_/MS%20GMP/Audit%20Guidelines/MS_GMP_AuditG_ExplSf.pdf \n\nExploration Safety HIF audit template\nhttp://www.docep.wa.gov.au/resourcessafety/Sections/Mining_Safety/pdf_/MS%20GMP/Audit%20Templates/MSH_AuditT_ExploraSafetyAudit.doc\n\nDuty of Care in WA Mines\nhttp://www.docep.wa.gov.au/ResourcesSafety/Sections/Mining_Safety/pdf_/MS%20GMP/Guidelines/MSH_GMP_DutyOfCare.pdf\n\n----\n\n[[Other guides that may be useful]]\n\n----
----\n''Half-life'': the time any substance takes to decay by half of its original amount. See also biological half-life, decay constant, effective half-life, radioactive half-life.\n\n''Health physics'': a scientific field that focuses on protection of humans and the environment from radiation. Health physics uses physics, biology, chemistry, statistics, and electronic instrumentation to help protect individuals from any damaging effects of radiation. For more information, see the Health Physics Society website: http://www.hps.org/.\n\n''High-level radioactive waste'': the radioactive material resulting from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. This can include liquid waste directly produced in reprocessing or any solid material derived from the liquid wastes having a sufficient concentration of fission products. Other radioactive materials can be designated as high-level waste, if they require permanent isolation. This determination is made by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the basis of criteria established in U.S. law. See also low-level waste, transuranic waste.\n\n''Hot spot'': any place where the level of radioactive contamination is considerably greater than the area around it.\n----\n[[I]]\n
----\n''IAEA'': The International Atomic Energy Agency is the world’s centre of cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up as the world’s "Atoms for Peace" organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies.\n\n''ICRP'': most countries have their own systems of radiological protection which are based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The authority of the ICRP comes from thescientific standing of its members over more than 50 years and the merit of its recommendations.\n\n''Ingestion'': 1) the act of swallowing; 2) in the case of radionuclides or chemicals, swallowing radionuclides or chemicals by eating or drinking.\n\n''Inhalation'': 1) the act of breathing in; 2) in the case of radionuclides or chemicals, breathing in radionuclides or chemicals.\n\n''Internal exposure'': exposure to radioactive material taken into the body.\n\n''Iodine'': a nonmetallic solid element. There are both radioactive and non-radioactive isotopes of iodine. Radioactive isotopes of iodine are widely used in medical applications. Radioactive iodine is a fission product and is the largest contributor to people’s radiation dose after an accident at a nuclear reactor.\n\n''Ion'': an atom that has fewer or more electrons than it has protons causing it to have an electrical charge and, therefore, be chemically reactive.\n\n''Ionization'': the process of adding one or more electrons to, or removing one or more electrons from, atoms or molecules, thereby creating ions. High temperatures, electrical discharges, or nuclear radiation can cause ionization.\n\n\n''Ionizing radiation'': any radiation capable of displacing electrons from atoms, thereby producing ions. High doses of ionizing radiation may produce severe skin or tissue damage. See also alpha particle, beta particle, gamma ray, neutron, x-ray.\n\n''Irradiation'': exposure to radiation.\n\n''Isotope'': a nuclide of an element having the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.\n----\n[[L]]
----\n''Latent period'': the time between exposure to a toxic material and the appearance of a resultant health effect.\n\n''Lead (Pb)'': a heavy metal. Several isotopes of lead, such as Pb-210 which emits beta radiation, are in the uranium decay chain.\n\n''Local radiation injury (LRI)'': acute radiation exposure (more than 1,000 rads) to a small, localized part of the body. Most local radiation injuries do not cause death. However, if the exposure is from penetrating radiation (neutrons, x-rays, or gamma rays), internal organs may be damaged and some symptoms of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), including death, may occur. Local radiation injury invariably involves skin damage, and a skin graft or other surgery may be required. See also CDC’s fact sheet “Acute Radiation Syndrome” at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/ars.asp.\n\n''Low-level waste (LLW)'': radioactively contaminated industrial or research waste such as paper, rags, plastic bags, medical waste, and water-treatment residues. It is waste that does not meet the criteria for any of three other categories of radioactive waste: spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; transuranic radioactive waste; or uranium mill tailings. Its categorization does not depend on the level of radioactivity it contains.\n----\n[[M]]
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----\n''Mineral Sands'': Most sand on the beach consists of grains of the mineral quartz (SiO2). Mineral sands are old beach sands that contain concentrations of the important minerals, rutile, ilmenite, zircon and monazite. These minerals are heavy and are also called 'heavy minerals'. The relative density of common sand minerals such as quartz is around 2.65. The heavy minerals found in mineral sands have a relative density of between 4 and 5.5. \n\n''Molecule'': a combination of two or more atoms that are chemically bonded. A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound that can exist by itself and retain all of its chemical properties.\n\n''Monazite'': Monazite is a primary ore of several rare earth metals most notably thorium, cerium and lanthanum. All these metals have various industrial uses and are considered quite valuable. Thorium is a highly radioactive metal and could be used as a replacement for uranium in nuclear power generation. Monazite therefore is an extremely important ore mineral.\n----\n[[N]]
[[Welcome]]\n[[GettingStarted]]\n[[Site Disclaimer]]\n----\n[[Regulations]]\n[[Australian Standards]]\n[[Codes of Practice]]\n[[Guidelines]]\n----\n[[Mineral Sands]]\n[[Radiation Gauges]]\n[[Radiation Monitoring]]\n[[Safety]]\n[[Security]]\n[[Training Courses]]\n[[Transport]]\n[[Uranium Exploration]]\n[[Well Logging]]\n[[X-Ray Analysis]]\n----\n[[Regulators]]\n[[Consultants]]\n----\n[[General Information]]\n[[Useful Links]]\n[[Glossary]]\n----\n[[Password|tiddlyspotControls]]\n© 2006 [[osmosoft|http://www.osmosoft.com]]\n\n^^[img[http://www.tiddlywiki.com/favicon.ico]] TiddlyWiki <<version>>^^\n^^Last update: <<fileDate>>^^\n
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The only mineral sand product currently classified as a radioative material is monazite, which represents only about 1% of the total volume of mineral sands produced.\n[[Regulations]]\n\n[[Codes of Practice]]\n\n[[Guidelines]]\n\n[[Radiation Health]]\n\n[[Resources Safety - DOCEP]]\n\n[[Radiation Safety Officer]]\n\n[[Training Courses]]\n\n[[Transport]]\n
[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/services/tldgroup.jpg]]\n[[ARPANSA|http://www.arpansa.gov.au/services/prms/index.cfm]]\n\n[[Australian Radiation Services|http://www.australian-radiation-services.com.au]]\n\n[[Global Medical Solutions|http://www.gms-aus.com]]\n\n[[Landauer Australasia|http://www.landaueraustralasia.com]]
----\n''Neutron'': a small atomic particle possessing no electrical charge typically found within an atom's nucleus. Neutrons are, as the name implies, neutral in their charge. That is, they have neither a positive nor a negative charge. A neutron has about the same mass as a proton. See also alpha particle, beta particle, gamma ray, nucleon, x-ray.\n\n''Non-ionizing radiation'': radiation that has lower energy levels and longer wavelengths than ionizing radiation. It is not strong enough to affect the structure of atoms it contacts but is strong enough to heat tissue and can cause harmful biological effects. Examples include radio waves, microwaves, visible light, and infrared from a heat lamp.\n\n''Non-stochastic effects'': effects that can be related directly to the radiation dose received. The effect is more severe with a higher dose. It typically has a threshold, below which the effect will not occur. These are sometimes called deterministic effects. For example, a skin burn from radiation is a non-stochastic effect that worsens as the radiation dose increases. See also stochastic effects.\n\n''Nuclear energy'': the heat energy produced by the process of nuclear fission within a nuclear reactor or by radioactive decay.\n\n''Nuclear fuel cycle'': the steps involved in supplying fuel for nuclear power plants. It can include mining, milling, isotopic enrichment, fabrication of fuel elements, use in reactors, chemical reprocessing to recover the fissile material remaining in the spent fuel, re-enrichment of the fuel material re-fabrication into new fuel elements, and waste disposal.\n\n''Nuclear tracers'': radioisotopes that give doctors the ability to "look" inside the body and observe soft tissues and organs, in a manner similar to the way x-rays provide images of bones. A radioactive tracer is chemically attached to a compound that will concentrate naturally in an organ or tissue so that an image can be taken.\n\n''Nucleon'': a proton or a neutron; a constituent of the nucleus of an atom.\n\n''Nucleus'': the central part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons. The nucleus is the heaviest part of the atom.\n\n''Nuclide'': a general term applicable to all atomic forms of an element. Nuclides are characterized by the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, as well as by the amount of energy contained within the atom.\n----\n[[P]]
A brief discussion on the issues surrounding NORM. Based on the Western Canadian Guidelines.\nhttp://www.stuarthunt.com/Downloads/Docs/NormText.pdf\n\nThe official document from the Candian NORM working group.\nhttp://www.stuarthunt.com/Downloads/Docs/Canadian%20NORM%20Guidelines.pdf\n\nA very nice poster from the UK NRPB about working with NORM\nhttp://www.hpa.org.uk/radiation/publications/educational/radiation_at_work/radiation_at_work_minerals.pdf\n\n \n\n
tiddlyspot password:\n<<option pasUploadPassword>>\n\nThese InterfaceOptions for customising TiddlyWiki are saved in your browser\n\nYour username for signing your edits. Write it as a WikiWord (eg JoeBloggs)\n\n<<option txtUserName>>\n<<option chkSaveBackups>> SaveBackups\n<<option chkAutoSave>> AutoSave\n<<option chkRegExpSearch>> RegExpSearch\n<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> CaseSensitiveSearch\n<<option chkAnimate>> EnableAnimations\n\n----\nAdvancedOptions\nPluginManager\nImportTiddlers
[img[http://www.iaea.org/Publications/images/safety_standards4.jpg]]\n\nIAEA Safety Standards Series - Management of Radioactive Waste from the Mining and Milling of Ores Safety Guide No. ~WS-G-1.2\nhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1134_scr.pdf \n\nSafety Reports Series No.27 - Monitoring and Surveillance of Residues from the Mining and Milling of Uranium and Thorium - International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 2002 \nhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1146_scr.pdf
A brief discussion on Naturally Occurring Radioactive Substances NORM\nhttp://www.stuarthunt.com/Downloads/Docs/NormText.pdf\n\n~APPEA- Guidelines for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Substances\nhttp://www.appea.com.au/PolicyIndustryIssues/documents/normguide.pdf\n\nCanadian Guidelines for Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)\nhttp://www.stuarthunt.com/Downloads/Docs/Canadian%20NORM%20Guidelines.pdf\n\nSaskatchewan Labour – Radiation Protection Guidelines for Uranium Exploration\nhttp://www.labour.gov.sk.ca/safety/radiation/uranium/radiationprotectionuranium.pdf\n\nSouth Australian Drill Core radiation policy\nhttp://www.pir.sa.gov.au/pages/minerals/core/pdf/050727_radiation_policy.pdf \n\n
----\n''Pathways'': the routes by which people are exposed to radiation or other contaminants. The three basic pathways are inhalation, ingestion, and direct external exposure. See also exposure pathway.\n\n''Penetrating radiation'': radiation that can penetrate the skin and reach internal organs and tissues. Photons (gamma rays and x-rays), neutrons, and protons are penetrating radiations. However, alpha particles and all but extremely high-energy beta particles are not considered penetrating radiation.\n\n''Photon'': discrete "packet" of pure electromagnetic energy. Photons have no mass and travel at the speed of light. The term "photon" was developed to describe energy when it acts like a particle (causing interactions at the molecular or atomic level), rather than a wave. Gamma rays and x-rays are photons.\n\n''Pitchblende'': a brown to black mineral that has a distinctive lustre. It consists mainly of urananite (UO~~2~~), but also contains radium (Ra). It is the main source of uranium (U) ore.\n\n''Plume'': the material spreading from a particular source and travelling through environmental media, such as air or ground water. For example, a plume could describe the dispersal of particles, gases, vapours, and aerosols in the atmosphere, or the movement of contamination through an aquifer (For example, dilution, mixing, or adsorption onto soil).\n\n''Plutonium (Pu)'': a heavy, man-made, radioactive metallic element. The most important isotope is Pu-239, which has a half-life of 24,000 years. Pu-239 can be used in reactor fuel and is the primary isotope in weapons. One kilogram is equivalent to about 22 million kilowatt-hours of heat energy. The complete detonation of a kilogram of plutonium produces an explosion equal to about 20,000 tons of chemical explosive. All isotopes of plutonium are readily absorbed by the bones and can be lethal depending on the dose and exposure time. Used in some In-stream Analysers.\n\n''Polonium (Po)'': a radioactive chemical element and a product of radium (Ra) decay. Polonium is found in uranium (U) ores.\n\n''Prenatal radiation exposure'': radiation exposure to an embryo or foetus while it is still in its mother’s womb. At certain stages of the pregnancy, the foetus is particularly sensitive to radiation and the health consequences could be severe above 5 rads, especially to brain function. For more information, see CDC’s fact sheet, “Possible Health Effects of Radiation Exposure on Unborn Babies,” at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/prenatal.asp.\n\n''Protective Action Guide (PAG)'': a guide that tells state and local authorities at what projected dose they should take action to protect people from exposure to unplanned releases of radioactive material into the environment.\n\n''Proton'': a small atomic particle, typically found within an atom's nucleus, that possesses a positive electrical charge. Even though protons and neutrons are about 2,000 times heavier than electrons, they are tiny. The number of protons is unique for each chemical element. See also nucleon.\n----\n[[Q]]
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More information http://periodic.lanl.gov/default.htm\n\n|Standard Periodic Table (ref. Wikipedia)|c\n|| !1 | !2 |!| !3 | !4 | !5 | !6 | !7 | !8 | !9 | !10 | !11 | !12 | !13 | !14 | !15 | !16 | !17 | !18 |\n|!1|bgcolor(#a0ffa0): @@color(red):H@@ |>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>||bgcolor(#c0ffff): @@color(red):He@@ |\n|!2|bgcolor(#ff6666): Li |bgcolor(#ffdead): Be |>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>||bgcolor(#cccc99): B |bgcolor(#a0ffa0): C |bgcolor(#a0ffa0): @@color(red):N@@ |bgcolor(#a0ffa0): @@color(red):O@@ |bgcolor(#ffff99): @@color(red):F@@ |bgcolor(#c0ffff): @@color(red):Ne@@ |\n|!3|bgcolor(#ff6666): Na |bgcolor(#ffdead): Mg |>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>|>||bgcolor(#cccccc): Al |bgcolor(#cccc99): Si |bgcolor(#a0ffa0): P |bgcolor(#a0ffa0): S |bgcolor(#ffff99): @@color(red):Cl@@ |bgcolor(#c0ffff): @@color(red):Ar@@ |\n|!4|bgcolor(#ff6666): K |bgcolor(#ffdead): Ca ||bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Sc |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Ti |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): V |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Cr |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Mn |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Fe |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Co |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Ni |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Cu |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Zn |bgcolor(#cccccc): Ga |bgcolor(#cccc99): Ge |bgcolor(#cccc99): As |bgcolor(#a0ffa0): Se |bgcolor(#ffff99): @@color(green):Br@@ |bgcolor(#c0ffff): @@color(red):Kr@@ |\n|!5|bgcolor(#ff6666): Rb |bgcolor(#ffdead): Sr ||bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Y |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Zr |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Nb |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Mo |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Tc |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Ru |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Rh |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Pd |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Ag |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Cd |bgcolor(#cccccc): In |bgcolor(#cccccc): Sn |bgcolor(#cccc99): Sb |bgcolor(#cccc99): Te |bgcolor(#ffff99): I |bgcolor(#c0ffff): @@color(red):Xe@@ |\n|!6|bgcolor(#ff6666): Cs |bgcolor(#ffdead): Ba |bgcolor(#ffbfff):^^*1^^|bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Lu |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Hf |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Ta |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): W |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Re |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Os |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Ir |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Pt |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Au |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): @@color(green):Hg@@ |bgcolor(#cccccc): Tl |bgcolor(#cccccc): Pb |bgcolor(#cccccc): Bi |bgcolor(#cccc99): Po |bgcolor(#ffff99): At |bgcolor(#c0ffff): @@color(red):Rn@@ |\n|!7|bgcolor(#ff6666): Fr |bgcolor(#ffdead): Ra |bgcolor(#ff99cc):^^*2^^|bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Lr |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Rf |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Db |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Sq |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Bh |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Hs |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Mt |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Ds |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Rg |bgcolor(#ffc0c0): @@color(green):Uub@@ |bgcolor(#cccccc): Uut |bgcolor(#cccccc): Uuq |bgcolor(#cccccc): Uup |bgcolor(#cccccc): Uuh |bgcolor(#fcfecc): @@color(#cccccc):Uus@@ |bgcolor(#ecfefc): @@color(#cccccc):Uuo@@ |\n\n| !Lanthanides^^*1^^|bgcolor(#ffbfff): La |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Ce |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Pr |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Nd |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Pm |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Sm |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Eu |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Gd |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Tb |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Dy |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Ho |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Er |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Tm |bgcolor(#ffbfff): Yb |\n| !Actinides^^*2^^|bgcolor(#ff99cc): Ac |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Th |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Pa |bgcolor(#ff99cc): U |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Np |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Pu |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Am |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Cm |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Bk |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Cf |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Es |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Fm |bgcolor(#ff99cc): Md |bgcolor(#ff99cc): No |\n\n*Chemical Series of the Periodic Table\n**@@bgcolor(#ff6666): Alkali metals@@\n**@@bgcolor(#ffdead): Alkaline earth metals@@\n**@@bgcolor(#ffbfff): Lanthanides@@\n**@@bgcolor(#ff99cc): Actinides@@\n**@@bgcolor(#ffc0c0): Transition metals@@\n**@@bgcolor(#cccccc): Poor metals@@\n**@@bgcolor(#cccc99): Metalloids@@\n**@@bgcolor(#a0ffa0): Nonmetals@@\n**@@bgcolor(#ffff99): Halogens@@\n**@@bgcolor(#c0ffff): Noble gases@@\n\n*State at standard temperature and pressure\n**those in @@color(red):red@@ are gases\n**those in @@color(green):green@@ are liquids\n**those in black are solids\n
In the aftermath of a radiological emergency the public will see radiation and its potential hazards described in many different and sometimes confusing ways. This primer is intended to help non radiation safety people understand these terms.\n\nActivity or radioactivity is measured by the number of atoms disintegrating per unit time. A ''becquerel'' is 1 disintegration per second. A ''curie'' is 37 billion disintegrations per second, which is the number of disintegrations per second in 1 gram of pure radium. A disintegrating atom can emit a beta particle, an alpha particle, a gamma ray, or some combination of all these, so becquerels or curies alone do not provide enough information to assess the risk to a person from a radioactive source.\n\nDisintegrating atoms emit different forms of radiation–—alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or x-rays. As radiation moves through the body, it dislodges electrons from atoms, disrupting molecules. Each time this happens, the radiation loses some energy until it escapes from the body or disappears. The energy deposited indicates the number of molecules disrupted. The energy the radiation deposits in tissue is called the ''dose'', or more correctly, the ''absorbed dose''. The units of measure for absorbed dose are the ''gray'' (1 joule per kilogram of tissue) or the ''rad'' (1/100 of a gray). The ''cumulative dose'' is the total absorbed dose or energy deposited by the body or a region of the body from repeated or prolonged exposures.\n\nAlpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and x-rays affect tissue in different ways. Alpha particles disrupt more molecules in a shorter distance than gamma rays. A measure of the biologic risk of the energy deposited is the ''dose equivalent''. The units of dose equivalent are ''sieverts'' or ''rem''. Dose equivalent is calculated by multiplying the absorbed dose by a ''quality factor''.\n\nSometimes a large number of people have been exposed to a source of ionizing radiation. To assess the potential health effects, scientists often multiply the exposure per person by the number of persons and call this the ''collective dose''. Collective dose is expressed as “person-rem” or “person-sieverts.” \n\n''Abbreviations for Radiation Measurements''\nWhen the amounts of radiation being measured are less than 1, prefixes are attached to the unit of measure as a type of shorthand. This is called scientific notation and is used in many scientific fields. The table below shows the prefixes for radiation measurement and their associated numeric notations.\n\n| Prefix | Equal to | How Much Is That? | Abbreviation | Example |\n| atto- | 1 X 10^^-18^^ | .000000000000000001 | A | aCi |\n| femto- | 1 X 10^^-15^^ | .000000000000001 | F | fCi |\n| pico- | 1 X 10^^-12^^ | .000000000001 | p | pCi |\n| nano- | 1 X 10^^-9^^ | .000000001 | n | nCi |\n| micro- | 1 X 10^^-6^^ | .000001 | µ | µSv |\n| milli- | 1 X 10^^-3^^ | .001 | m | mSv |\n| centi- | 1 X 10^^-2^^ | .01 | c | cSv |\n \n\nWhen the amount to be measured is 1,000 (i.e., 1 X 10^^3^^) or higher, prefixes are attached to the unit of measure to shorten very large numbers (also scientific notation). The table below shows the prefixes used in radiation measurement and their associated numeric notations.\n\n| Prefix | Equal to | How Much Is That? | Abbreviation | Example |\n| kilo- | 1 X 103 | 1000 | k | kCi |\n| mega- | 1 X 106 | 1,000,000 | M | ~MCi |\n| giga- | 1 X 109 | 100,000,000 | G | ~GBq |\n| tera- | 1 X 1012 | 100,000,000,000 | T | ~TBq |\n| peta- | 1 X 1015 | 100,000,000,000,000 | P | ~PBq |\n| exa- | 1 X 1018 | 100,000,000,000,000,000 | E | ~EBq |\n \n\n''Health Effects of Radiation Exposure'' \nExposure to radiation can cause two kinds of health effects. ''Deterministic effects'' are observable health effects that occur soon after receipt of large doses. These may include hair loss, skin burns, nausea, or death. ''Stochastic effects'' are long-term effects, such as cancer. The radiation dose determines the severity of a deterministic effect and the probability of a stochastic effect.\n\nThe object of any radiation control program is to prevent any deterministic effects and minimize the risk for stochastic effects. When a person inhales or ingests a radionuclide, the body will absorb different amounts of that radionuclide in different organs, so each organ will receive a different ''organ dose''. Federal Guidance Report 11 (FGR-11) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lists ''dose conversion factors'' for all radionuclides. This report can be downloaded from http://www.epa.gov/radiation/pubs.htm. The dose conversion factor for each organ is the number of rem delivered to that organ by each curie or becquerel of intake of a specific radioisotope.\n\n''External, Internal, and Absorbed Doses'' \nA person can receive an ''external dose'' by standing near a gamma or high-energy beta-emitting source. A person can receive an ''internal dose'' by ingesting or inhaling radioactive material. The external exposure stops when the person leaves the area of the source. The internal exposure continues until the radioactive material is flushed from the body by natural processes or decays.\n\nA person who has ingested a radioactive material receives an internal dose to several different organs. The absorbed dose to each organ is different, and the sensitivity of each organ to radiation is different. FGR-11 assigns a different weighting factor to each organ. To determine a person’s risk for cancer, multiply each organ’s dose by its weighting factor, and add the results; the sum is the ''effective dose equivalent'' (“effective” because it is not really the dose to the whole body, but a sum of the relative risks to each organ; and “equivalent” because it is presented in rem or sieverts instead of rads or gray).\n\n''Committed and Total Effective Dose Equivalents'' \nWhen a person inhales or ingests a radionuclide, that radionuclide is distributed to different organs and stays there for days, months, or years until it decays or is excreted. The radionuclide will deliver a radiation dose over a period of time. The dose that a person receives from the time the nuclide enters the body until it is gone is the ''committed dose''. FGR-11 calculates doses over a 50-year period and presents the ''committed dose equivalent'' for each organ plus the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE).\n\nA person can receive both an internal dose and an external dose. The sum of the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the external dose is called the ''total effective dose equivalent'' (TEDE).\n
----\n''Quality factor (Q)'': the factor by which the absorbed dose (rad or gray) is multiplied to obtain a quantity that expresses, on a common scale for all ionizing radiation, the biological damage (rem) to an exposed person. It is used because some types of radiation, such as alpha particles, are more biologically damaging internally than other types. For more information, see [[Primer on Radiation Measurement]]\n----\n[[R]]
----\n''Rad (radiation absorbed dose)'': a basic unit of absorbed radiation dose. It is a measure of the amount of energy absorbed by the body. The rad is the old unit of absorbed dose. It has been replaced by the unit gray (Gy), which is equivalent to 100 rad. One rad equals the dose delivered to an object of 100 ergs of energy per gram of material. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.\n\n''Radiation'': energy moving in the form of particles or waves. Familiar radiations are heat, light, radio waves, and microwaves. Ionizing radiation is a very high-energy form of electromagnetic radiation.\n\n''Radiation Management Plan (RMP)'': this is a plan for the safe management of radiation at a mine. The level of detail in the plan depends on the degree of potential radiation exposure which has been identified and the anticipated difficulty in controlling it. The RMP must demonstrate that sufficient thought has gone into the proposal to enable execution of a good radiation protection practice during the operation of a mine or plant.\n\n''Radiation sickness'': See also acute radiation syndrome (ARS), or the CDC fact sheet “Acute Radiation Syndrome,” at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/ars.asp.\n\n''Radiation warning symbol'': a symbol prescribed by the Radiation Safety Act. It is a black trefoil on a yellow background. It must be displayed where certain quantities of radioactive materials are present or where certain doses of radiation could be received.\n\n''Radioactive contamination'': the deposition of unwanted radioactive material on the surfaces of structures, areas, objects, or people. It can be airborne, external, or internal. See also contamination, decontamination.\n\n''Radioactive decay'': the spontaneous disintegration of the nucleus of an atom.\n\n''Radioactive half-life'': the time required for a quantity of a radioisotope to decay by half. For example, because the half-life of iodine-131 (I-131) is 8 days, a sample of I-131 that has 10 mCi of activity on January 1, will have 5 mCi of activity 8 days later, on January 9. See also: biological half-life, decay constant, effective half-life.\n\n''Radioactive material'': material that contains unstable (radioactive) atoms that give off radiation as they decay. \n\n''Radioactivity'': the process of spontaneous transformation of the nucleus, generally with the emission of alpha or beta particles often accompanied by gamma rays. This process is referred to as decay or disintegration of an atom.\n\n''Radioassay'': a test to determine the amounts of radioactive materials through the detection of ionizing radiation. Radioassays will detect transuranic nuclides, uranium, fission and activation products, naturally occurring radioactive material, and medical isotopes. \n\n''Radiogenic'': health effects caused by exposure to ionizing radiation.\n\n''Radiography'': 1) medical: the use of radiant energy (such as x-rays and gamma rays) to image body systems. 2) industrial: the use of radioactive sources to photograph internal structures, such as turbine blades in jet engines. A sealed radiation source, usually iridium-192 (Ir-192) or cobalt-60 (Co-60), beams gamma rays at the object to be checked. Gamma rays passing through flaws in the metal or incomplete welds strike special photographic film (radiographic film) on the opposite side.\n\n''Radioisotope (radioactive isotope)'': isotopes of an element that have an unstable nucleus. Radioactive isotopes are commonly used in science, industry, and medicine. The nucleus eventually reaches a stable number of protons and neutrons through one or more radioactive decays. Approximately 3,700 natural and artificial radioisotopes have been identified.\n\n''Radiological or radiologic'': related to radioactive materials or radiation. The radiological sciences focus on the measurement and effects of radiation.\n\n''Radiological Council'': The Radiation Safety Act applies to both ionising and non-ionising radiation. It regulates irradiating apparatus (eg x-ray equipment), non-exempt radioactive substances and prescribed electronic products (eg lasers and UV transilluminators). Regulation is achieved primarily by - registration of the equipment, substances and products and the premises where they are manufactured, operated, used or stored; and by licensing individuals to possess, use, operate, manufacture or otherwise deal with particular radiation sources. Responsibility for the Act lies with the Radiological Council, an independent statutory authority appointed under section 13 of the Act. The Council advises and is responsible to the Minister for Health.\n\n''Radionuclide'': an unstable and therefore radioactive form of a nuclide.\n\n''Radium (Ra)'': a naturally occurring radioactive metal. Radium is a radionuclide formed by the decay of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) in the environment. It occurs at low levels in virtually all rock, soil, water, plants, and animals. Radon (Rn) is a decay product of radium.\n\n''Radon (Rn)'': a naturally occurring radioactive gas found in soils, rock, and water throughout the United States. Radon causes lung cancer and is a threat to health because it tends to collect in homes, sometimes to very high concentrations. As a result, radon is the largest source of exposure to people from naturally occurring radiation.\n\n''Rare Earth Ellement'': a group of metalic eleents (the lanthanide elements), ranging from lanthanum (atomic number 57) through to lutetium (71), Yttrium (39) and scandium (21), while not strctly rare earths, are generally grouped with them.\n\n''Relative risk'': the ratio between the risk for disease in an irradiated population to the risk in an unexposed population. A relative risk of 1.1 indicates a 10% increase in cancer from radiation, compared with the "normal" incidence. See also risk, absolute risk.\n\n''Rem (roentgen equivalent, man)'': a unit of equivalent dose. Not all radiation has the same biological effect, even for the same amount of absorbed dose. Rem relates the absorbed dose in human tissue to the effective biological damage of the radiation. It is determined by multiplying the number of rads by the quality factor, a number reflecting the potential damage caused by the particular type of radiation. The rem is the old unit of equivalent dose, which was replaced by the sievert (Sv), which is equal to 100 rem. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.\n\n''Risk'': the probability of injury, disease, or death under specific circumstances and time periods. Risk can be expressed as a value that ranges from 0% (no injury or harm will occur) to 100% (harm or injury will definitely occur). Risk can be influenced by several factors: personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure to other material, or inborn or inherited characteristic known from scientific evidence to be associated with a health effect. Because many risk factors are not exactly measurable, risk estimates are uncertain. See also absolute risk, relative risk.\n\n''Risk assessment'': an evaluation of the risk to human health or the environment by hazards. Risk assessments can look at either existing hazards or potential hazards.\n\n''Roentgen (R)'': a unit of exposure to x-rays or gamma rays. One roentgen is the amount of gamma or x-rays needed to produce ions carrying 1 electrostatic unit of electrical charge in 1 cubic centimetre of dry air under standard conditions.\n\n''Rutile'': Rutile is named after the Latin word rutilus, meaning red. Rutile is a rich source of titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is a very white, opaque substance. Because of its opaque and reflective properties it is used as a pigment in paints, plastics and paper. Titanium dioxide is also used in sunscreen because of its ability to reflect UV light.\n----\n[[S]]
Basics http://hps.org/publicinformation/ate/faqs/radiation.html\n\nQuestions and answers on radiation – US Health Physics Society http://hps.org/publicinformation/ate/cat47.html\n
[[Radiation Health]]\n\nDOCEP Guideline radiation gauges\nhttp://www.docep.wa.gov.au/resourcessafety/Sections/Mining_Safety/pdf_/MS%20GMP/Guidelines/MS_GMP_Guide_radiationgauges.pdf\n\n[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/publications/rps13.jpg]]\nCode of Practice for Safe Use of Fixed Radiation Gauges (2007) \nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/Publications/codes/rps13.cfm
Radiation Health - WA Health Department http://www.radiologicalcouncil.wa.gov.au/index.html\n\nRadiological Council- the Radiation Safety Act applies to both ionising and non-ionising radiation. It regulates irradiating apparatus (eg x-ray \nequipment), non-exempt radioactive substances and prescribed electronic products (eg lasers and UV transilluminators)\n\nApplication for a Radiation Safety Licence - eg Radiation Safety Officer http://www.radiologicalcouncil.wa.gov.au/Pages/FactSheets.html \n\nApplication for Registration of Premises - eg Drill Core Store http://www.radiologicalcouncil.wa.gov.au/Pages/FactSheets.html \n\n[[Regulations]]
[[Calibration]]\n[[Exposure Limits]]\n[[Instrumentation]]\n[[Monitoring Badges]]\n
RADIATION SAFETY ACT Responsibilities of the Registrant Regulations 18 and 19\nhttp://www.radiologicalcouncil.wa.gov.au/PDF/RegistrantResponsibilities.pdf \n\nRADIATION SAFETY ACT Responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer Regulation 19(3) \nhttp://www.radiologicalcouncil.wa.gov.au/PDF/RSOResponsibilities.pdf]]\n\n[[Radiation Health]]\n\n[[Training Courses]]\n
Radioactive minerals emit various forms of radiation. If proper safeguards and precautions are followed, any hazards due to the radiation are minimized.\n\nSome guidelines for radioactive minerals:\n\n*Handle specimens as little as possible; if they are touched, wash hands with soap and water.\n*Never store specimens, even the smallest of size, in an inhabited room.\n*Store specimens in a well ventilated area.\n*Keep all specimens out of children’s reach.\n*Never eat, drink, smoke, or sleep near a radioactive mineral.\n*Label all radioactive specimens as radioactive.\n*Don't carry radioactive minerals in your pocket or wear them as jewellery.\n*Try to keep radioactive minerals in a plastic display case or some other container with a lid. This helps to control small pieces that may break off during handling. A boxed radioactive mineral keeps you from directly touching the specimen, which helps to minimize radiation exposure to your skin.\n*Clean up small particles that may break off of radioactive specimens with soap and water.\n*If you collect lots of large highly radioactive specimens, then consider a lead, lead glass or concrete shielded box for storage, in a well ventilated area.\n
Last updated: May-07 \n \n|Company |Licensee |Contact no. |Location |\n|APH Contracters |Roy Hewlett | 9725 4755|Picton |\n|Centurion |Michael Moore| 9370 8000|South Guildford |\n|Dangerous Goods Management |Simon Lea | 9478 6700|Perth Airport |\n|Giacci Bros |Michael Giacci | 9923 3653|Geraldton |\n| | | 9724 9500|Picton|\n|Logical Freight Solutions |Gary Campbell | 9248 4389|Malaga |\n|N & L Transport |Darren Whitsed | 9279 6922|Guildford |\n|P & O Transport |Michael Glover, Blake Graffin | 9430 2900|North Fremantle |\n|Patrick Logistics |Robert Leckie | 9350 0900|Welshpool |\n|SITA Australia |Gordon Warren | 13 13 35|Welshpool |\n|Toll Energy Logistics |Michael Ferraro | 9351 0200|Welshpool |\n|Toll IPEC |Anthony Consedine | 1300 366 684|Forrestfield |\n|Toll Priority |Victor Pritchard | 13 15 31| Redcliffe |\n \n\nPlease be aware that this list is not exhaustive and is in no particular order of preference. \n \n
Radiation Safety Act http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/swans.nsf/PDFbyName/1B9C466882F53160482565D800066A68?openDocument\n\nRadiation Safety (General) Regulations http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/regs.nsf/PDFbyName/FAFC9A7944E5B678482566DD0016A47A?openDocument\n\nRadiation Safety (Qualifications) Regulations http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/regs.nsf/PDFbyName/B47C76A63435CC69482566DD0016EE05?openDocument \n\nRadiation Safety (Transport Radioactive Substances) Regulations 2002 http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/regs.nsf/PDFbyName/0E1C07A61CE1605D48256B890027A56A?openDocument \n\nMines Safety & Inspection Act http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/swans.nsf/PDFbyName/82915DE5521F30F6482565D900204D4E?openDocument\n\nMines Safety & Inspection Regulations http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/regs.nsf/PDFbyName/ED9C64AC1720F47148256CDB00319135?openDocument \n\n
@@''Western Australia''@@\nIn Western Australia there are four government agencies responsible for aspects of radiation control:\n\n*Department of Health, through the Radiological Council, sets standards for public and worker exposure, and regulates the transport of radioactive material;\n\n* Department of Environment, through the Environmental Impact Assessment process establishes the conditions under which a project may proceed, and manages environmental and polution prevention control;\n\n*Department of Consumer and Employment Protection, through the Mines Safety and Inspection Act 1994, controls radiation on exploration, mining and processing sites; and\n\n*Department of Industry and Resources, through Agreements Acts can require compliance with specific legislation or standards. Furthermore, the Nuclear Activities Regulation Act 1978 vested in the Minister of Resource Development is available to cover any circumstances not met by the existing regulatory regime. The Environment Division also places conditions on uranium exploration through a Program of Work - Exploration (Mining Act 1978)requirement\n\nThis system of legislation ensures that any mining activity in Western Australia which involves radiation will comply with the highest international standards.\n\n\n[[Radiation Health]]\n\n[[Resources Safety - DOCEP]]\n\n@@''Commonwealth''@@\nAustralian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) http://www.ansto.gov.au/\n\nAustralian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Science Agency (APANSA) http://www.arpansa.gov.au/\n\nAustralian Customs http://www.customs.gov.au\nExport / Import of radioactive material http://www.customs.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=4381 \n\nCustoms (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Statutory Rules 1958 No. 5 as amended made under the Customs Act 1901 http://www.comlaw.gov.au/comlaw%5Cmanagement.nsf/lookupindexpagesbyid/IP200400503?OpenDocument \n\nNuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act 1987 - Revised 14 March 2003 – Version 2 - Application to Transfer Uranium Ore Concentrates (UOC) Internationally http://www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Management.nsf/lookupindexpagesbyid/IP200401519?OpenDocument \n\n\n\n
Resources Safety - DOCEP http://www.docep.wa.gov.au/resourcessafety/index.html\n\n[[Regulations]]
----\n''Sensitivity'': ability of an analytical method to detect small concentrations of radioactive material.\n\n''Shielding'': the material between a radiation source and a potentially exposed person that reduces exposure.\n\n''Sievert (Sv)'': a unit used to derive a quantity called dose equivalent. This relates the absorbed dose in human tissue to the effective biological damage of the radiation. Not all radiation has the same biological effect, even for the same amount of absorbed dose. Dose equivalent is often expressed as millionths of a sievert, or micro-sieverts (µSv). One sievert is equivalent to 100 rem. see [[Primer on Radiation Measurement]]. \n\n''S.I. units'': the Systeme Internationale (or International System) of units and measurements. This system of units officially came into being in October 1960 and has been adopted by nearly all countries, although the amount of actual usage varies considerably. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.\n\n''Somatic effects'': effects of radiation that are limited to the exposed person, as distinguished from genetic effects, which may also affect subsequent generations. See also teratogenic effects.\n\n''Stable nucleus'': the nucleus of an atom in which the forces among its particles are balanced. See also unstable nucleus.\n\n''Stochastic effect'': effect that occurs on a random basis independent of the size of dose. The effect typically has no threshold and is based on probabilities, with the chances of seeing the effect increasing with dose. If it occurs, the severity of a stochastic effect is independent of the dose received. Cancer is a stochastic effect. See also non-stochastic effect, deterministic effect.\n\n''Strontium (Sr)'': a silvery, soft metal that rapidly turns yellow in air. Sr-90 is one of the radioactive fission materials created within a nuclear reactor during its operation. Stronium-90 emits beta particles during radioactive decay.\n----\n[[T]]
National Minerals Industry Safety and Health Risk Assessment Guideline\nhttp://mcnew.mishc.uq.edu.au/rag/index.asp\n\nMinerals Industry Safety Handbook\nhttp://www.docep.wa.gov.au/resourcesSafety/Content/Mining/Guidance_material_and_publications/Minerals_Industry_safety_handbook.html\n
[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/rps11_cover.jpg]]\n\nCode of Practice for the Security of Radioactive Sources (2007) \nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/rps11.cfm\n\n
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#Use of the information and data contained within this Site or these pages is at your sole risk. \n#If you rely on the information on this Site you are responsible for ensuring by independent verification its accuracy, currency or completeness. \n#This Site includes links to other websites operated by Community, Business and Government.\n#These linked websites will have their own terms and conditions of use and you should familiarise yourself with these. \n#All linked websites are linked "as is" and the Government of Western Australia:\n**does not sponsor, endorse or necessarily approve of any material on websites linked from or to this Site; \n**does not make any warranties or representations regarding the quality, accuracy, merchantability or fitness for purpose of any material on websites linked from or to this Site; \n**does not make any warranties or representations that material on other websites to which this site is linked does not infringe the intellectual property rights of any person anywhere in the world; and \n**does not authorise the infringement of any intellectual property rights contained in material in other websites by linking this Site to those other websites.\n#If you use automatic language translation services in connection with this Site you do so at your own risk.\n#The information and data on this Site is subject to change without notice. The authors of this Site may revise this Disclaimer at any time by updating this tiddler. \n#The Government of Western Australia, its agents, instrumentalities, officers and employees:\n**make no representations, express or implied, as to the accuracy of the information and data contained on this Site; \n**make no representations, express or implied, as to the accuracy or usefulness of any translation of the information on this Site or any linked website into another language; \n**make no representations as to the availability of the Site and the availability of websites linked from or to the Site; \n**accept no liability however arising for any loss resulting from the use of the Site and any information and data or reliance placed on it (including translated information and data); \n**make no representations, either expressed or implied, as to the suitability of the said information and data for any particular purpose; \n**accepts no liability for any interference with or damage to a user's computer, software or data occurring in connection with or relating to this Site or its use or any website linked to this Site.\n#Readers should exercise their own skill and judgment with respect to their use of the material contained in this TiddlyWiki.\n
in the Western Australian Mining Industry
[[Radiation Safety]]
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----\n''Tailings'': waste rock from mining operations that contains concentrations of mineral ore that are too low to make typical extraction methods economical.\n\n''Thermonuclear device'': a “hydrogen bomb.” A device with explosive energy that comes from fusion of small nuclei, as well as fission.\n\n''Teratogenic effect'': birth defects that are not passed on to future generations, caused by exposure to a toxin as a foetus. See also genetic effects, somatic effects.\n\n''Terrestrial radiation'': radiation emitted by naturally occurring radioactive materials, such as uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radon (Rn) in the earth.\n\n''Thorium (Th)'': a naturally occurring radioactive metal found in small amounts in soil, rocks, water, plants, and animals. The most common isotopes of thorium are thorium-232 (Th-232), thorium-230 (Th-230), and thorium-238 (Th-238).\n\n''Transuranic'': pertaining to elements with atomic numbers higher than uranium (92). For example, plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) are transuranics.\n\n''Tritium'': (chemical symbol H-3) a radioactive isotope of the element hydrogen (chemical symbol H). See also deuterium.\n----\n[[U]]
<<tabs txtMainTab Timeline Timeline TabTimeline All 'All tiddlers' TabAll Tags 'All tags' TabTags More 'More lists' TabMore>>
\nA TiddlyWiki is an html file (a webpage) stuffed with special code and published under an Open Source License. So it is a program that you can save for free from the Internet and edit in your computer using only your Internet browser. You can then take it with you wherever you go, on a USB memory stick (called a “Wiki on a Stick”) and edit it on any computer that has a relatively recent web browser, preferably Mozilla’s free browser Firefox. \n\nTiddlyWikis are used to organize data in non-linear ways, with hyperklinks and tags. The idea is that you can\n \n{{indent{sort your information in small bite-size chunks called Tiddlers,\n\n{{indent{link the Tiddlers by hyperlinks and by the main menu, \n\n{{indent{and add custom tags as desired. \n\nTiddlyWikis were invented by Jeremy Ruston. His site, with the original documentation and other information, can be found at http://www.tiddlywiki.com/\n
[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/AIOH.jpg]]\n\nAIOH Basic Introduction to Occupational Hygiene Course held at Curtin University \nhttp://www.aioh.org.au/conference/2006/session1_pdc.htm\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/ansto.jpg]]\n\nANSTO RSO Training - Radiation Safety Training - 5-Day Advanced Radiation Safety Course \nhttp://old-www.ansto.gov.au/ansto/safecomm/safe03_radsaftrain.html#training\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/ifap.jpg]]\n\nIFAP - Certificate IV in Surface Ventilation Officer (Mining Industry) A requirement of the WA Mines Safety and Inspection Act is the appointment of persons with the competence to ensure that workplaces are adequately ventilated to minimise risks arising from exposure to hazardous substances and airborne contaminants.\nhttp://www.ifap.asn.au/training/osh/sventoff.html\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/ifap.jpg]]\nIFAP - Certificate III in Surface Ventilation Technician (Mining Industry) The role of the Surface Ventilation Technician is to assist the surface ventilation officer in the collection of contaminant samples, equipment calibration and maintenance and recording and reporting of analysis results.\nhttp://www.ifap.asn.au/training/osh/sventtech.html\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/rss.jpg]]\n\nRadiation Safety Services - Fixed Gauges Radiation Safety Courses \nhttp://www.radiationsafety.com.au/training.html \n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/uwa.jpg]]\n\nUWA Unsealed Isotopes Course \nhttp://www.safety.uwa.edu.au/radiation\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/rc.jpg]]\n\nWA Health Department - RADIATION SAFETY COURSES AND EXAMINATIONS \nhttp://www.radiologicalcouncil.wa.gov.au/Pages/RadiationSafetyCoursesAndExaminations.html\n\n[[Training Information]]\n
[[Draft syllabus – training for uranium exploration staff]]\n\n\nEH & S Technician Radiation Training Manual Introduction to Radiation Safety in the Mineral Sands Industry \n\nFrequently Asked Questions - Is radiation safe \n\nGlossary of Radiation Terms \n\nRecent developments in uranium exploration, production and environmental issues Proceedings of a technical meeting organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the\n\nOECD Nuclear Energy Agency and DIAMO State Owned Enterprise held in Straz, Czech Republic, 6–8 September 2004\n\nMeasuring Radioactivity at the South Alligator River \n\nOccupational radiation-safety standards and regulations are sound position statement of the health physics society \n\nOccupational Safety in Uranium Mining \n\nPeriodic Table of Elements\n\nRisk assessment position statement of the health physics society \n\nThe Radiochemistry of Uranium \n\nThe Western Australian Mineral Sands Industry \n\nUranium \n\nWA Health Department - Topics covered by the core examination \n\n
![[Regulators]]\n[[Radiation Health]]\nRadiation Safety (Qualifications) Regulations http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/regs.nsf/PDFbyName/B47C76A63435CC69482566DD0016EE05?openDocument \n\nRadiation Safety (Transport Radioactive Substances) Regulations 2002 http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/regs.nsf/PDFbyName/0E1C07A61CE1605D48256B890027A56A?openDocument \n\nApplication of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material to Bulk Shipments of Materials in Minerals Industry http://www.calytrix.biz/radlinks/tenorm/05.ARPS-paper.pdf\n\n![[Codes of Practice]]\n\n[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/rps2_cover.jpg]]\n\nCode of Practice for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material - radiation safety series No. 2 ARPANSA\nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/trans_code.htm\n\n[img[http://www.iaea.org/Publications/images/safety_standards4.jpg]]\n\nIAEA Safety Standards Series Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material Safety Guide No.~TS-G-1.1(~ST-2) \nhttp://www-ns.iaea.org/standards/documents/default.asp?sub=200\n\nIAEA Safety Standards Series Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material 1996 Edition (Revised) Requirements No. ~TS-R-1 (~ST-1, Revised) http://www-ns.iaea.org/standards/documents/default.asp?sub=200\n\nIAEA Safety Standards Series No.115 IAEA Safety Standards Series International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources \nhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/SS-115-Web/Start.pdf|\n\n\n!Transport Form\nRoad/Rail/Marine Consignor’s Declaration for Dangerous Goods Class 7 Radioactive Material http://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rps/cons_decform.pdf\n\n![[Radioactive Substances Transport Companies]]\n
----\n''Unstable nucleus'': a nucleus that contains an uneven number of protons and neutrons and seeks to reach equilibrium between them through radioactive decay (i.e., the nucleus of a radioactive atom). See also stable nucleus.\n\n''UNSCEAR'': United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. See also http://www.unscear.org/.\n\n''Uranium (U)'': a naturally occurring radioactive element whose principal isotopes are uranium-238 (U-238) and uranium-235 (U-235). Natural uranium is a hard, silvery-white, shiny metallic ore that contains a minute amount of uranium-234 (U-234).\n\n''Uranium mill tailings'': naturally radioactive residue from the processing of uranium ore. Although the milling process recovers about 95% of the uranium, the residues, or tailings, contain several isotopes of naturally occurring radioactive material, including uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra), polonium (Po), and radon (Rn).\n----\n[[X]]
| !date | !user | !location | !storeUrl | !uploadDir | !toFilename | !backupdir | !origin |\n| 6/2/2007 14:36:23 | IvanF | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . | Ok |\n| 7/2/2007 7:27:1 | IvanF | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 7/2/2007 10:48:52 | IvanF | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 9/2/2007 11:21:29 | IvanF | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | 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[[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 22/2/2007 12:37:49 | IvanF | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 22/2/2007 12:41:14 | IvanF | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 22/2/2007 12:42:35 | IvanF | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 22/2/2007 12:45:2 | IvanF | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | 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[[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 7/3/2007 8:14:46 | IvanF | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 21/3/2007 7:48:26 | IanM | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 2/4/2007 14:7:39 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 4/4/2007 9:11:21 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 13/4/2007 15:5:50 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 13/4/2007 15:6:18 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 26/4/2007 15:4:2 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 26/4/2007 15:5:43 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 10/5/2007 11:9:31 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 12/6/2007 13:3:3 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 14/6/2007 8:30:57 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 20/9/2007 8:30:57 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . | Ok |\n| 19/10/2007 8:17:54 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 30/10/2007 8:31:51 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 5/11/2007 9:40:59 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 22/11/2007 11:48:26 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 22/11/2007 11:48:45 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 22/11/2007 11:48:59 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 22/11/2007 11:50:5 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 4/12/2007 9:26:5 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 6/12/2007 7:50:17 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 16/1/2008 12:36:32 | YourName | [[radiation.htm|file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/ifetwadjieff/My%20Documents/tiddlywiki/Radiation/radiation.htm]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |\n| 21/4/2008 15:24:55 | IvanF | [[/|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/]] | [[store.cgi|http://radiationsafety.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | index.html | . |
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Initializations\n***/\n//{{{\n// define config.options.pasPassword\nif (!config.options.pasPassword) {\n config.options.pasPassword = 'defaultPassword';\n window.saveOptionCookie('pasPassword');\n}\n// since loadCookies is first called befor password definition\n// we need to reload cookies\nwindow.loadOptionsCookie();\n//}}}\n////===\n\n////+++!![config.macros.upload]\n\n//{{{\nconfig.macros.upload = {\n accessKey: "U",\n formName: "UploadPlugin",\n contentType: "text/html;charset=UTF-8",\n defaultStoreScript: "store.php"\n};\n\n// only this two configs need to be translated\nconfig.macros.upload.messages = {\n aboutToUpload: "About to upload TiddlyWiki to %0",\n backupFileStored: "Previous file backuped in %0",\n crossDomain: "Certainly a cross-domain isue: access to an other site isn't allowed",\n errorDownloading: "Error downloading",\n errorUploadingContent: "Error uploading content",\n fileLocked: "Files is locked: You are not allowed to Upload",\n fileNotFound: "file to upload not found",\n fileNotUploaded: "File %0 NOT uploaded",\n mainFileUploaded: "Main TiddlyWiki file uploaded to %0",\n passwordEmpty: "Unable to upload, your password is empty",\n urlParamMissing: "url param missing",\n rssFileNotUploaded: "RssFile %0 NOT uploaded",\n rssFileUploaded: "Rss File uploaded to %0"\n};\n\nconfig.macros.upload.label = {\n promptOption: "Save and Upload this TiddlyWiki with UploadOptions",\n promptParamMacro: "Save and Upload this TiddlyWiki in %0",\n saveLabel: "save to web", \n saveToDisk: "save to disk",\n uploadLabel: "upload" \n};\n\nconfig.macros.upload.handler = function(place,macroName,params){\n // parameters initialization\n var storeUrl = params[0];\n var toFilename = params[1];\n var backupDir = params[2];\n var uploadDir = params[3];\n var username = params[4];\n var password; // for security reason no password as macro parameter\n var label;\n if (document.location.toString().substr(0,4) == "http")\n label = this.label.saveLabel;\n else\n label = this.label.uploadLabel;\n var prompt;\n if (storeUrl) {\n prompt = this.label.promptParamMacro.toString().format([this.toDirUrl(storeUrl, uploadDir, username)]);\n }\n else {\n prompt = this.label.promptOption;\n }\n createTiddlyButton(place, label, prompt, \n function () {\n config.macros.upload.upload(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir, username, password); \n return false;}, \n null, null, this.accessKey);\n};\nconfig.macros.upload.UploadLog = function() {\n return new config.lib.Log('UploadLog', " !storeUrl | !uploadDir | !toFilename | !backupdir | !origin |" );\n};\nconfig.macros.upload.UploadLog.prototype = config.lib.Log.prototype;\nconfig.macros.upload.UploadLog.prototype.startUpload = function(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir) {\n var line = " [[" + config.lib.file.basename(storeUrl) + "|" + storeUrl + "]] | ";\n line += uploadDir + " | " + toFilename + " | " + backupDir + " |";\n this.newLine(line);\n};\nconfig.macros.upload.UploadLog.prototype.endUpload = function() {\n this.addToLine(" Ok |");\n};\nconfig.macros.upload.basename = config.lib.file.basename;\nconfig.macros.upload.dirname = config.lib.file.dirname;\nconfig.macros.upload.toRootUrl = function (storeUrl, username)\n{\n return root = (this.dirname(storeUrl)?this.dirname(storeUrl):this.dirname(document.location.toString()));\n}\nconfig.macros.upload.toDirUrl = function (storeUrl, uploadDir, username)\n{\n var root = this.toRootUrl(storeUrl, username);\n if (uploadDir && uploadDir != '.')\n root = root + '/' + uploadDir;\n return root;\n}\nconfig.macros.upload.toFileUrl = function (storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, username)\n{\n return this.toDirUrl(storeUrl, uploadDir, username) + '/' + toFilename;\n}\nconfig.macros.upload.upload = function(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir, username, password)\n{\n // parameters initialization\n storeUrl = (storeUrl ? storeUrl : config.options.txtUploadStoreUrl);\n toFilename = (toFilename ? toFilename : config.options.txtUploadFilename);\n backupDir = (backupDir ? backupDir : config.options.txtUploadBackupDir);\n uploadDir = (uploadDir ? uploadDir : config.options.txtUploadDir);\n username = (username ? username : config.options.txtUploadUserName);\n password = config.options.pasUploadPassword; // for security reason no password as macro parameter\n if (!password || password === '') {\n alert(config.macros.upload.messages.passwordEmpty);\n return;\n }\n if (storeUrl === '') {\n storeUrl = config.macros.upload.defaultStoreScript;\n }\n if (config.lib.file.dirname(storeUrl) === '') {\n storeUrl = config.lib.file.dirname(document.location.toString())+'/'+storeUrl;\n }\n if (toFilename === '') {\n toFilename = config.lib.file.basename(document.location.toString());\n }\n\n clearMessage();\n // only for forcing the message to display\n if (version.major < 2)\n store.notifyAll();\n if (!storeUrl) {\n alert(config.macros.upload.messages.urlParamMissing);\n return;\n }\n // Check that file is not locked\n if (window.BidiX && BidiX.GroupAuthoring && BidiX.GroupAuthoring.lock) {\n if (BidiX.GroupAuthoring.lock.isLocked() && !BidiX.GroupAuthoring.lock.isMyLock()) {\n alert(config.macros.upload.messages.fileLocked);\n return;\n }\n }\n \n var log = new this.UploadLog();\n log.startUpload(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir);\n if (document.location.toString().substr(0,5) == "file:") {\n saveChanges();\n }\n var toDir = config.macros.upload.toDirUrl(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, username);\n displayMessage(config.macros.upload.messages.aboutToUpload.format([toDir]), toDir);\n this.uploadChanges(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir, username, password);\n if(config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed) {\n //var rssContent = convertUnicodeToUTF8(generateRss());\n var rssContent = generateRss();\n var rssPath = toFilename.substr(0,toFilename.lastIndexOf(".")) + ".xml";\n this.uploadContent(rssContent, storeUrl, rssPath, uploadDir, '', username, password, \n function (responseText) {\n if (responseText.substring(0,1) != '0') {\n displayMessage(config.macros.upload.messages.rssFileNotUploaded.format([rssPath]));\n }\n else {\n var toFileUrl = config.macros.upload.toFileUrl(storeUrl, rssPath, uploadDir, username);\n displayMessage(config.macros.upload.messages.rssFileUploaded.format(\n [toFileUrl]), toFileUrl);\n }\n // for debugging store.php uncomment last line\n //DEBUG alert(responseText);\n });\n }\n return;\n};\n\nconfig.macros.upload.uploadChanges = function(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir, \n username, password) {\n var original;\n if (document.location.toString().substr(0,4) == "http") {\n original = this.download(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir, username, password);\n return;\n }\n else {\n // standard way : Local file\n \n original = loadFile(getLocalPath(document.location.toString()));\n if(window.Components) {\n // it's a mozilla browser\n try {\n netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege("UniversalXPConnect");\n var converter = Components.classes["@mozilla.org/intl/scriptableunicodeconverter"]\n .createInstance(Components.interfaces.nsIScriptableUnicodeConverter);\n converter.charset = "UTF-8";\n original = converter.ConvertToUnicode(original);\n }\n catch(e) {\n }\n }\n }\n //DEBUG alert(original);\n this.uploadChangesFrom(original, storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir, \n username, password);\n};\n\nconfig.macros.upload.uploadChangesFrom = function(original, storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir, \n username, password) {\n var startSaveArea = '<div id="' + 'storeArea">'; // Split up into two so that indexOf() of this source doesn't find it\n var endSaveArea = '</d' + 'iv>';\n // Locate the storeArea div's\n var posOpeningDiv = original.indexOf(startSaveArea);\n var posClosingDiv = original.lastIndexOf(endSaveArea);\n if((posOpeningDiv == -1) || (posClosingDiv == -1))\n {\n alert(config.messages.invalidFileError.format([document.location.toString()]));\n return;\n }\n var revised = original.substr(0,posOpeningDiv + startSaveArea.length) + \n allTiddlersAsHtml() + "\sn\st\st" +\n original.substr(posClosingDiv);\n var newSiteTitle;\n if(version.major < 2){\n newSiteTitle = (getElementText("siteTitle") + " - " + getElementText("siteSubtitle")).htmlEncode();\n } else {\n newSiteTitle = (wikifyPlain ("SiteTitle") + " - " + wikifyPlain ("SiteSubtitle")).htmlEncode();\n }\n\n revised = revised.replaceChunk("<title"+">","</title"+">"," " + newSiteTitle + " ");\n revised = revised.replaceChunk("<!--PRE-HEAD-START--"+">","<!--PRE-HEAD-END--"+">","\sn" + store.getTiddlerText("MarkupPreHead","") + "\sn");\n revised = revised.replaceChunk("<!--POST-HEAD-START--"+">","<!--POST-HEAD-END--"+">","\sn" + store.getTiddlerText("MarkupPostHead","") + "\sn");\n revised = revised.replaceChunk("<!--PRE-BODY-START--"+">","<!--PRE-BODY-END--"+">","\sn" + store.getTiddlerText("MarkupPreBody","") + "\sn");\n revised = revised.replaceChunk("<!--POST-BODY-START--"+">","<!--POST-BODY-END--"+">","\sn" + store.getTiddlerText("MarkupPostBody","") + "\sn");\n\n var response = this.uploadContent(revised, storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir, \n username, password, function (responseText) {\n if (responseText.substring(0,1) != '0') {\n alert(responseText);\n displayMessage(config.macros.upload.messages.fileNotUploaded.format([getLocalPath(document.location.toString())]));\n }\n else {\n if (uploadDir !== '') {\n toFilename = uploadDir + "/" + config.macros.upload.basename(toFilename);\n } else {\n toFilename = config.macros.upload.basename(toFilename);\n }\n var toFileUrl = config.macros.upload.toFileUrl(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, username);\n if (responseText.indexOf("destfile:") > 0) {\n var destfile = responseText.substring(responseText.indexOf("destfile:")+9, \n responseText.indexOf("\sn", responseText.indexOf("destfile:")));\n toFileUrl = config.macros.upload.toRootUrl(storeUrl, username) + '/' + destfile;\n }\n else {\n toFileUrl = config.macros.upload.toFileUrl(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, username);\n }\n displayMessage(config.macros.upload.messages.mainFileUploaded.format(\n [toFileUrl]), toFileUrl);\n if (backupDir && responseText.indexOf("backupfile:") > 0) {\n var backupFile = responseText.substring(responseText.indexOf("backupfile:")+11, \n responseText.indexOf("\sn", responseText.indexOf("backupfile:")));\n toBackupUrl = config.macros.upload.toRootUrl(storeUrl, username) + '/' + backupFile;\n displayMessage(config.macros.upload.messages.backupFileStored.format(\n [toBackupUrl]), toBackupUrl);\n }\n var log = new config.macros.upload.UploadLog();\n log.endUpload();\n store.setDirty(false);\n // erase local lock\n if (window.BidiX && BidiX.GroupAuthoring && BidiX.GroupAuthoring.lock) {\n BidiX.GroupAuthoring.lock.eraseLock();\n // change mtime with new mtime after upload\n var mtime = responseText.substr(responseText.indexOf("mtime:")+6);\n BidiX.GroupAuthoring.lock.mtime = mtime;\n }\n \n \n }\n // for debugging store.php uncomment last line\n //DEBUG alert(responseText);\n }\n );\n};\n\nconfig.macros.upload.uploadContent = function(content, storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir, \n username, password, callbackFn) {\n var boundary = "---------------------------"+"AaB03x"; \n var request;\n try {\n request = new XMLHttpRequest();\n } \n catch (e) { \n request = new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP"); \n }\n if (window.netscape){\n try {\n if (document.location.toString().substr(0,4) != "http") {\n netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege('UniversalBrowserRead');}\n }\n catch (e) {}\n } \n //DEBUG alert("user["+config.options.txtUploadUserName+"] password[" + config.options.pasUploadPassword + "]");\n // compose headers data\n var sheader = "";\n sheader += "--" + boundary + "\sr\snContent-disposition: form-data; name=\s"";\n sheader += config.macros.upload.formName +"\s"\sr\sn\sr\sn";\n sheader += "backupDir="+backupDir\n +";user=" + username \n +";password=" + password\n +";uploaddir=" + uploadDir;\n // add lock attributes to sheader\n if (window.BidiX && BidiX.GroupAuthoring && BidiX.GroupAuthoring.lock) {\n var l = BidiX.GroupAuthoring.lock.myLock;\n sheader += ";lockuser=" + l.user\n + ";mtime=" + l.mtime\n + ";locktime=" + l.locktime;\n }\n sheader += ";;\sr\sn"; \n sheader += "\sr\sn" + "--" + boundary + "\sr\sn";\n sheader += "Content-disposition: form-data; name=\s"userfile\s"; filename=\s""+toFilename+"\s"\sr\sn";\n sheader += "Content-Type: " + config.macros.upload.contentType + "\sr\sn";\n sheader += "Content-Length: " + content.length + "\sr\sn\sr\sn";\n // compose trailer data\n var strailer = new String();\n strailer = "\sr\sn--" + boundary + "--\sr\sn";\n //strailer = "--" + boundary + "--\sr\sn";\n var data;\n data = sheader + content + strailer;\n //request.open("POST", storeUrl, true, username, password);\n try {\n request.open("POST", storeUrl, true); \n }\n catch(e) {\n alert(config.macros.upload.messages.crossDomain + "\snError:" +e);\n exit;\n }\n request.onreadystatechange = function () {\n if (request.readyState == 4) {\n if (request.status == 200)\n callbackFn(request.responseText);\n else\n alert(config.macros.upload.messages.errorUploadingContent + "\snStatus: "+request.status.statusText);\n }\n };\n request.setRequestHeader("Content-Length",data.length);\n request.setRequestHeader("Content-Type","multipart/form-data; boundary="+boundary);\n request.send(data); \n};\n\n\nconfig.macros.upload.download = function(uploadUrl, uploadToFilename, uploadDir, uploadBackupDir, \n username, password) {\n var request;\n try {\n request = new XMLHttpRequest();\n } \n catch (e) { \n request = new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP"); \n }\n try {\n if (uploadUrl.substr(0,4) == "http") {\n netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege("UniversalBrowserRead");\n }\n else {\n netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege("UniversalXPConnect");\n }\n } catch (e) { }\n //request.open("GET", document.location.toString(), true, username, password);\n try {\n request.open("GET", document.location.toString(), true);\n }\n catch(e) {\n alert(config.macros.upload.messages.crossDomain + "\snError:" +e);\n exit;\n }\n \n request.onreadystatechange = function () {\n if (request.readyState == 4) {\n if(request.status == 200) {\n config.macros.upload.uploadChangesFrom(request.responseText, uploadUrl, \n uploadToFilename, uploadDir, uploadBackupDir, username, password);\n }\n else\n alert(config.macros.upload.messages.errorDownloading.format(\n [document.location.toString()]) + "\snStatus: "+request.status.statusText);\n }\n };\n request.send(null);\n};\n\n//}}}\n////===\n\n////+++!![Initializations]\n\n//{{{\nconfig.lib.options.init('txtUploadStoreUrl','store.php');\nconfig.lib.options.init('txtUploadFilename','');\nconfig.lib.options.init('txtUploadDir','');\nconfig.lib.options.init('txtUploadBackupDir','');\nconfig.lib.options.init('txtUploadUserName',config.options.txtUserName);\nconfig.lib.options.init('pasUploadPassword','');\nsetStylesheet(\n ".pasOptionInput {width: 11em;}\sn"+\n ".txtOptionInput.txtUploadStoreUrl {width: 25em;}\sn"+\n ".txtOptionInput.txtUploadFilename {width: 25em;}\sn"+\n ".txtOptionInput.txtUploadDir {width: 25em;}\sn"+\n ".txtOptionInput.txtUploadBackupDir {width: 25em;}\sn"+\n "",\n "UploadOptionsStyles");\nconfig.shadowTiddlers.UploadDoc = "[[Full Documentation|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/l#UploadDoc ]]\sn"; \nconfig.options.chkAutoSave = false; saveOptionCookie('chkAutoSave');\n\n//}}}\n////===\n\n////+++!![Core Hijacking]\n\n//{{{\nconfig.macros.saveChanges.label_orig_UploadPlugin = config.macros.saveChanges.label;\nconfig.macros.saveChanges.label = config.macros.upload.label.saveToDisk;\n\nconfig.macros.saveChanges.handler_orig_UploadPlugin = config.macros.saveChanges.handler;\n\nconfig.macros.saveChanges.handler = function(place)\n{\n if ((!readOnly) && (document.location.toString().substr(0,4) != "http"))\n createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,this.onClick,null,null,this.accessKey);\n};\n\n//}}}\n////===\n
While uranium exploration is not considered to be a dangerous occupation, it is good practice to keep all occupational exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The drilling and handling of samples that contain uranium mineralisation has the potential to expose workers to a radiation hazard. In Western Australian, radiation safety regulations require that where there is a risk of radiation exposure, the levels must be monitored and that control measures be put in place to minimise worker radiation exposure. The regulations also require the control of spilt material and releases that could cause contamination in the environment and the decontamination of equipment removed from exploration sites.\n\n''Radiation Safety in Uranium Exploration - A draft guide for preparing a Radiation Management Plan is available from''\nhttp://calytrix.biz/radlinks/tenorm/guidelines/NORM-2.1.Preparation_of_a_Radiation_Management_Plan-Exploration.pdf\n\n''[[Regulations]]''\n\n''[[Australian Standards]]''\n\n''[[Codes of Practice]]''\n\n''[[Guidelines]]''\n\n''Radiation Management Plan''\n[[Check List]]\n\n''Training''\n[[Draft syllabus – training for uranium exploration staff]]\n\n''Occupational Safety in Uranium Mining''\nhttp://www.uic.com.au/nip06.htm\n\n''Radioactive Core Storage and Handling''\nhttp://www.pir.sa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/11794/GTS-P-M-0040-2_0.pdf\n\n''International Safety Guidelines''\nIAEA Assessing the Need for Radiation Protection Measures in Work Involving Minerals and Raw Materials. Safety Reports Series No. 49\nhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1257_web.pdf \n\nIAEA SAFETY STANDARDS SERIES Occupational Radiation Protection in the Mining and Processing of Raw Materials SAFETY GUIDE No. ~RS-G-1.6 \nhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1183_web.pdf\n
!Organisations\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/arps.jpg]]\n\nAustralian Radiation Protection Society \nhttp://www.arps.org.au/\n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/SAI.jpg]]\n\nAustralian Standards\nhttp://www.saiglobal.com/shop/script/Provider.asp?Db=AS\n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/CME.jpg]]\n\nWA Chamber of Minerals and Energy – Radiation Advisory Group\nhttp://www.cmewa.com.au/index.php?pid=129|\n\n!Government Radiation Organisations\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/ansto.jpg]]\n\nAustralian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)\nhttp://www.ansto.gov.au/ \n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/arpansa.jpg]]\n\nAustralian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Science Agency (APANSA)\nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/\n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/rc.jpg]]\n\nRadiation Health - WA Health Department\nhttp://www.radiologicalcouncil.wa.gov.au/index.html \n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/docep.jpg]]\n\nResources Safety - DOCEP\nhttp://www.docep.wa.gov.au/resourcessafety/index.html \n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/sask.jpg]]\n\nSaskatchewan Labour – Uranium Exploration in Canada\nhttp://www.labour.gov.sk.ca/safety/index.htm \n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/ntmin.jpg]]\n\nNorthern Territory Department of Minerals & Energy\nhttp://kakadu.nt.gov.au/servlet/page?_pageid=157&_dad=portal30&_schema=PORTAL30&_type=site&_fsiteid=193&_fid=282566&_fnavbarid=52598&_fnavbarsiteid=193&_fedit=0&_fmode=2&_fdisplaymode=1&_fcalledfrom=1&_fdisplayurl=\n\nEnvironment Protection Authority - South Australia\nhttp://www.epa.sa.gov.au/radiation.html\n!WA Statutes and Regulations\n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/slp.jpg]]\n\nWA State Law Publisher \nhttp://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/swans.nsf\n\n!Consultants / Training \n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/caly.jpg]]\n\nCalytrix Consulting Pty Ltd\nhttp://www.calytrix.biz/\n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/ifap2.jpg]]\n\nIndustrial Foundation for Accident Prevention (IFAP)\nhttp://www.ifap.asn.au/ \n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/rss.jpg]]\n\nRadiation Safety Services\nhttp://www.radiationsafety.com.au/\n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/uwa.jpg]]\n\nUniversity of WA - Radiation Safety\nhttp://www.safety.uwa.edu.au/radiation \n\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/wrs.jpg]]\n\nWestern Radiation Services\nhttp://www.westernradiation.com.au/\n\n!Uranium Information \nInternational Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Publications\nhttp://www.iaea.org/Publications/index.html\n\nNick's World Collection of Radiation Links\nhttp://www.calytrix.biz/radlinks/ \n\n[[Uranium Information Centre]]\nhttp://www.uic.com.au/ \n\nUS EPA\nhttp://www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclides/uranium.htm\n\nWISE Uranium Project\nhttp://www.wise-uranium.org/index.html\n\n!Other Information\nAssociation for Mineral exploration – British Columbia\nhttp://www.amebc.ca/healthsafety.htm\n\nAnti Nuclear Alliance of Western Australia\nhttp://www.anawa.org.au/wa/index.html\n
<!--{{{-->\n<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>\n<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar -closeTiddler closeOthers +editTiddler permalink references jump'></div>\n<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>\n<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>\n<div class='tagClear'></div>\n<!--}}}-->
----\n''Whole body count'': the measure and analysis of the radiation being emitted from a person’s entire body, detected by a counter external to the body.\n\n''Whole body exposure'': an exposure of the body to radiation, in which the entire body, rather than an isolated part, is irradiated by an external source.
\n|bgcolor(#99ccff):''Please note:'' @@color(red):To move around this Site, use the TiddlyWiki Menu and Controls rather than using your Browser@@ @@color(green):''Back''@@ @@color(red):and@@ @@color(green):''Forward''@@ @@color(red):buttons.@@|\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/trucks.jpg]]\n\nWelcome to the Radiation Safety TiddlyWiki. If you need @@color(red):instructions@@ on how to use this site, please read [[GettingStarted]]\n\nThis TiddlyWiki has been developed to assist you with your work. Your feedback is therefore very important to us. If there is additional content you would like added to the site, or if you have any feedback on its design, please contact Ivan Fetwadjieff.\n\nWhilst every endeavour will be made to ensure the content is kept up to date, your assistance would be greatly appreciated. If you notice anything that looks out of date or incorrect, please let us know.\nThanks. Please read the [[Site Disclaimer]] prior to using this information.\n\nIvan & Stephen\nRadiation Safety Team\n\n[img[http://i163.photobucket.com/albums/t294/radiationsafety/team.jpg]]
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[[Radiation Health]]\n\n[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/rhs/rhs28.jpg]]\n\nNo 28 Code of practice for the safe use of sealed radioactive sources in bore-hole logging (1989) \nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rhs/rhs28.pdf\n
|1 adult human (100 Bq/kg)| 7000 Bq |\n|1 kg of coffee | 1000 Bq |\n|1 kg superphosphate fertiliser | 5000 Bq |\n|The air in a 100 sq metre Australian home (radon) | 3000 Bq |\n|The air in many 100 sq metre European homes (radon) | 30 000 Bq |\n|1 household smoke detector (with americium) | 30 000 Bq |\n|Radioisotope for medical diagnosis | 70 million Bq |\n|Radioisotope source for medical therapy | 100 000 000 million Bq |\n|1 kg 50-year old vitrified high-level nuclear waste | 10 000 000 million Bq |\n|1 luminous Exit sign (1970s) | 1 000 000 million Bq |\n|1 kg uranium | 25 million Bq |\n|1 kg uranium ore (Canadian, 15%) | 25 million Bq |\n|1 kg uranium ore (Australian, 0.3%) | 500 000 Bq |\n|1 kg low level radioactive waste | 1 million Bq |\n|1 kg of coal ash | 2000 Bq |\n|1 kg of granite | 1000 Bq |
----\n''X-ray'': electromagnetic radiation caused by deflection of electrons from their original paths, or inner orbital electrons that change their orbital levels around the atomic nucleus. X-rays, like gamma rays can travel long distances through air and most other materials. Like gamma rays, x-rays require more shielding to reduce their intensity than do beta or alpha particles. X-rays and gamma rays differ primarily in their origin: x-rays originate in the electronic shell; gamma rays originate in the nucleus. See also neutron.\n----\n[[Y]]
[[Radiation Health]]\n\n[img[http://www.arpansa.gov.au/images/rhs/rhs9.jpg]]\nNo 9 Code of practice for protection against ionizing radiation emitted from X-ray analysis equipment (1984)\nhttp://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rhs/rhs10.pdf\n
----\n''Yellowcake'': historically, the name 'yellowcake' was given to the bright yellow substance ammonium diuranate (ADU) in Australia. ADU is usually calcined at high temperature to produce a mixture of uranium oxides, principally U~~3~~O~~8~~, which is a dark green colour and is also called uranium oxide concentrate (UOC). Colloquially UOC is sometimes (incorrectly) referred to as 'yellowcake'.\n----\n[[Z]]
----\n''Zircon'': mineral sand deposits are mined to recover titanium and zirconium bearing minerals, usually referred to as heavy minerals.
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